The Origin of the Names of the Counties in Shanxi Province

The Origin of the Names of the Counties in Shanxi Province

In Kaihuang period of Sui Dynasty, Datong city was established in the current Urad Front Banner of Inner Mongolia to defend against the invasion of Turkic people. “Datong” means the unification of the country. In late Tang Dynasty, with the migration of Shatuo people into the mainland, Datong was set up here and since then the name Datong has never changed. In history, Datong was always the central city of the northern part of China, which was called the capital of three dynasties and key city of two dynasties. In history, it is a strategic place which the military strategists were contesting for. It connects Shanggu in the east, reaches Mount Heng in the south, borders the Yellow River in the west and is adjacent to the desert in the north. It really played a very significant role in defending the capital and the central plain area. Four districts and seven counties are under the control of it.

 

City District of Datong City

 

On May 2 of 1949, Datong was liberated peacefully and was changed to a city from a county. The city district was part of the city which was called the inner city. At the beginning it consisted of four districts which were changed to three in 1950. In 1952, there were only two districts. One of them had jurisdiction over North Yu, Northwest Yu and North Guan; the other controlled Southeast Yu, Southwest Yu, South Guan and East Guan. The public bureau of the district was changed to the people’s government at this time. In February of 1954, Datong City was established by combining the two districts and in April of this year Datong city was changed to City District of Datong City.


Datong Industrial and Mining District


In March of 1950, the office of Kouquan Industrial and Mining District was established in Datong city and in April of 1951 it was changed to the people’s government of Kouquan Industrial and Mining District. In 1955, Kouquan Industrial and Mining District was changed to Kouquan District and in May of 1966, the city district and the agricultural area of Kouquan District were combined to form the suburb and things related to the towns became the center of Kouquan District. In October of 1970, Datong Industrial and Mining District was established from Kouquan District.


The South Suburb


In March of 1950, the office of Kouquan Coalmine was established in Datong city and in April of 1951 it was changed to the people’s government of Kouquan Coalmine District. in May of 1966, the city district and the agricultural area under the control of Kouquan District were combined to form the suburb. In October of 1970, the suburb was abolished and the south suburb was officially set up.

 

Xinrong District


At the beginning of new China, Xinrong District belonged to Datong city and Zuoyun County respectively under the control of Chaha’er Province. In 1958, apart from Guojiayao, Dongshengzhuang and Polu, the other areas were put under the jurisdiction of the suburb of Datong city. In 1960, it became part of Gucheng District and in 1964 it reverted to be under the jurisdiction of Datong County. In 1970, the north suburb of Datong was established in the west of Xinrong District. In April of 1972, it was changed to Xinrong District because of the name of the village where it was located.

 

Datong County


The origin of the name of the county is the same as Datong city. In May of 1949, Datong was liberated and the counties in the east and west merged under the jurisdiction of Yanbei area of Chaha’er Province. In 1954, it was combined with Huairen County and formed Daren County and in 1958 it became part of Datong called Big Suburb. In 1960, Datong County was changed to Gucheng District. In 1965, Datong County was rebuilt and belonged to Yanbei. On 1 July of 1993, Yanbei area was combined with Datong city under the jurisdiction of Datong. The administrative center of Datong County has always been in the city and in 1971 the administrative center transderred to Xiping Town.

 

Yanggao County


Gaoliu County was set up in Han Dynasty and later became Gaoliu County of Hengzhou, which had jurisdiction over Gaoliu County and Anyang County. In Hongwu 26 of Ming Dynasty (1393), Yanghe Wei was established and in Hongwu 31(1398) a city was built in the current site which was called Yanghe city because of the name of the river Yang River where it was located. In the first year of Xuande (1426), it became part of Gaoshan Wei. Later Yanghe Tongpan was established. In Shunzhi 3 of Qing Dynasty (1646), Yanghe and Gaoshan were combined to form Yanggao Wei and in Yongzheng 3(1725) Wei was changed to County, which was the origin of the name of Yanggao County.


Tianzhen County


In the time of Warring Kingdoms, it was Yanling Yi of Zhao Kingdom and Tang Dynasty set up Tiancheng Army here. Then it was Tiancheng County in Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties. At the beginning of Ming Dynasty (1368) it was changed to Tiancheng Wei and in the first year of Hongxi (1425) Zhenlu Wei was set up.


Hunyuan County


Xihan Dynasty set up Guo County and Pingshu County which belonged to Yanmen County and Dai County respectively. Then the two counties were merged to be Guo County under the jurisdiction of Hengshan County. In Jianwu period of Donghan Dynasty, Guo County was abolished and Changshan Pass was established (Changshan is another name of Mount Heng to avoid violating the taboo of Wen King Liuheng.) In the time of Three Kingdoms, Caowei Kingdom reset Guo County and then Beiwei Dynasty set up Guoshan County which was under the jurisdiction of Sizhou, the inner land of Jingji. At the beginning of Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Yunzhou and then Hunyuan County was divided and reset.


Lingqiu County


The name of Lingqiu emerged as early as in the time of Warring Kingdoms because it was the place where Wu King of Zhao Kingdom was buried here after dying. In Gaozu 11 of Han Dynasty (196 BC), Lingqiu County was set up here and belonged to Dai County of Youzhou. In Donghan Dynasty, it was part of Zhongshan Kingdom and was abolished later. Then Beiwei Dynasty rebuilt Lingqiu County which was under the control of Sizhou.


Guangling County


It was called Pingshu Yi under the control of Zhao Kingdom in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Dai County and then Xihan Dynasty set up Pingshu County under the jurisdiction of Dai County of Youzhou. In Tonghe 13 of Liao Dynasty (995), Guangling County was established, the name of which derived from the Ling Spring 15 kilometers away in the west of the county.


Zuoyun County


In Hongwu 26 of Ming Dynasty (1393), Shuowei Town was set up. In Yongle 7(1409), it was changed to Zuowei. In Zhengtong 14(1449), Yunchuan Wei outside the Great Wall was merged with it to form Zuoyunchuan Wei. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Weishe County was changed to Zuoyun County.


Jincheng


It is called Zezhou in the ancient time and was under the jurisdiction of Jin Dynasty. In 376 BC, Jin Dynasty was divided into three parts by Wei, Zhao and Han, and the last emperor of Jin Dynasty Jinggong was forced to move to Duanshi. Gaodu was made the place where the emperor worshipped the ancestors and god, which is the origin of the name of Jincheng. In 1983, Jincheng County was changed into Jincheng city (county level). In 1985, the southeast area was abolished and Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and four counties.


City District of Jincheng


In 1985, Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city, which consisted of the city district and the suburb (Zezhou County now). This is the beginning of the establishment of the city.


Zezhou County


In Qin and Han Dynasty, Gaogu County, Yang’e County, and Gaodu County were set up. In Beiwei Dynasty, it belonged to Jianzhou. In Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty (583), Jianzhou was changed to Zezhou for it is nearby Huoze River. From Wude 3(620), it was called Jincheng County, and then changed its name for many times such as Jincheng and Danzhou. In 1985, Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city, which originally consisted of the city urban area and the surburbs. In 1996, the suburb was replaced by Zezhou County.


Gaoping City


In Yongan 2 of Beiwei Dynasty, Gaoping County was set up, and it got the name Gaoping from its special geographical conditions that the middle area is a plain with mountains around. Tianbao 7 of Beiqi Dynasty (556), Gaoping County was changed to Pinggao County. At the end of Beiqi Dynasty, Pinggao County was changed to Gaoping County again and in 1994 it was upgraded to a city.


Yangcheng County


It was called Huoze in the ancient time. In the first year of Tianbao period of Tang Dynasty (742), Huoze County was changed to Yangcheng County, for the county was located in Yanglingyi, which was the site of Yang’e. The site of Yang’e was adjacent to He Mountain in the south. Just as the semantic book Erya.Shidi says, Big Ling is located in the original site of Yang’e. Yang Spring flows through the county, so it is called Yanghe Counyt or Yangling County.


Lingchuan County


In Zhou Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Jin Kingdom, while in Qing Dynasty it belonged to Shangdang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), Lingchuan County was set up in the place of Gaoping, which got its name from the name of the mountains. In Zhiyuan 3 under the control of the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty(1266),it was merged with Jincheng County, and in Zhiyuan 31(1294) it reverted to the jurisdiction of Lingchuan County again.


Qinshui County


In Qin and Han Dynasties, Duanshi County was set up. In Beiqi Dynasty, it was changed to Yongning County. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it got a new name Qinshui County because of Qinhe River which flew through the county.


Jinzhong City


In August of 1949, Yuci special district was established and it was changed to Jinzhong special district because it was located in the central part of Shanxi province and “Zhong” in Chinese means the central area. Since September of 1968, it has been called Jinzhong area. In September of 1999, it was changed to prefectural-level Jinzhong city which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and nine counties.


Yuci District


In Spring-and-Autumn period, Yuzhou Kingdom was established in the territory of Yuwang who was the eighth emperor of Yan. To honor Yuwang, the following people called the central area of Yuzhou Kingdom Yushe which means the kingdom of Yuwang emperor. The marginal area is called Yuci. In Beiwei and Beiqi Dynasties, it was changed to Zhongdu County twice. In 979, the first emperor of Song Dynasty overthrew Beihan Dynasty and destroyed Jinyang city and set up Bingzhou in Yuci. Three years later, Bingzhou was removed to Tangming Township and Yuci reverted to the administration of a county, which was never changed in the following dynasties. In 1958, Yuci city of county-level was set up and in 1999 it was changed to Yuci District.


Taigu County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it belonged to Jin Kingdom. Under the control of King Xiang of Zhou Dynasty, the marquis of Jin granted this place to Dafu Yang Chufu as his fief, which was called Yangyi then. In Xihan Dynasty, Yangyi County was set up. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), the county was called Taigu County because it was located in the valley of Mount Taihang and Taigu in Chinese means the valley of Mount Taihang.



Qi County


Qi County was noted for the swamps with grass in the ancient time. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it was under the jurisdiction of Jin Kingdom and in Pinggong 2 of Jin Kingdom, the place of Qi was granted to Dafu Qixi as his fief. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, it belonged to Zhao Kingdom and in Xihan Dynasty, Qi County was set up. In Xinmang period, Qi County was changed to Shi County. And Donghan Dynasty used the name Qi County again. In Tianbao 7 of Beiqi Dynasty, Qi County was abolished and in Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty it was rebuilt under the control of Bingzhou. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty, Taizhou was set up in Taigu County and Qi County belonged to Taihzou. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty, Taizhou was abolished and Qi County became part of Bingzhou again. In Song Dynasty, it belonged to Taiyuan Fu, while in Jin Dynasty it was changed to Qi County under the control of Bingzhou. In Yuan Dynasty it was still called Qi County but under the jurisdiction of Taiyuan Lu.


Pingyao County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it belonged to Jin Kingdom and when it comes to the time of Warring Kingdoms it became part of Zhao Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Pingyao County covered the areas of Jingling County, Zhongdu County and Wu County. In Xihan Dynasty, Pingtao County was set up and in the time of Taiwu Emperor, Zhongdu County was removed to Yuci under the jurisdiction of Pingtao County. The administrative institute was removed to Jingling Village and Pingtao County was changed to Pingyao County to avoid violating the taboo of the name of Taiwu Emperor Tuobatao. Meanwhile Jingling County was abolished and transferred to the control of Pingyao County. Since then, Pingyao County has never changed its name. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Qingshi County was set up which was abolished in the first year of Daye period. Pingyao County was under the jurisdiction of Fenzhou in most time of history.


Jiexiu city



In 636 BC, Wengong King of Jin Kingdom returned to reward his ministers, but Jie Zitui rejected the reward and became a hermit living in Mian Mountain with his mother. Wengong King of Jin Kingdom burned the trees to invite him back, but Zitui would rather choose to die together with his mother than go back with the king. Therefore the name of Jiexiu city derives from the anecdote that Jie Zitui used to rest in peace here, and in Chinese “Xiu” means resting in peace. Since 514 BC, Wu County was set up in the east and Pingzhou Yi was set up in the west. The first emperor of Qin Dynasty set up a county and Jiexiu(界休in Chinese) in the city district which was changed to Jiemei, Jiexiu(介休 in Chinese) and Pingchang in the following time. Beizhou Dynasty established Jiexiu County here. In Sui and Tang Dynasites, Jiexiu County and Jiezhou was established here.


Lingshi County


In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty, Wen King Yangjian visited the northern area and dug Fen River to clear the way for the visit. A giant stone was dug out from the river. It seemed like both stone and iron with a pale color and clang and was viewed as a holy stone at that time. Therefore it was called Lingshi (holy stone in Chinese). Then the king set up Lingshi County in the southwest of Pingchang County.


Yushe County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, the eighth Yan King Yuwang set up Yuzhou Kingdom in his territory. The following people called the central area of Yuzhou Kingdom Yushe which means the country of Yuwang King in memory of Yuwang. The marginal area was called Yuci. In Nan Dynasty, it was the affiliated state of Jizi which was called Ji. It belonged to Bingzhou in Zhou Dynasty and in the time of Spring-and-Autumn it was part of Jin Kingdom. In the Warring Kingdoms period, it belonged to Han Kingdom and then Zhao Kingdom. Till Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Shangdang County. Then Han Dynasty set up Nieshi County here. In Jin Dynasty, Nieshi County was divided and Wuxiang County was established in part of it. Yushe then was under the jurisdiction of Wuxiang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Wuxiang County was divided and Yushe County was set up in part of it.


Zuoquan County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was part of Han Kingdom and then belonged to Zhao Kingdom. In Qin Dynasty, it was under the control of Shangdang County. In Xihan Dynasty, it was part of Nieshi County. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, Laohe County was established here because Lao River (the west source of Qingzhang River) flew through this area. It belonged to Shangdang County at that time. Then Xinjin Dynasty changed it to Laoyang County which was under the control of Leping County. In Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), it became a township, and in Xiaochang 3(526), a county was reestablished named Liaoyang. Then it became part of Liangyu County (Heshun County now). In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), it was named Liaoshan County after Liao Mountain in the northwest of the county. On September 18 of 1942, Liao County was changed to Zuoquan County in memory of the chief of staff of the eight route army general Zuoquan who sacrificed his life in Matian of Liao County.


Heshun County


Beiqi Dynasty set up Liangyu County, the name of which derived from Liangyu River in it. In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Heshun County which was named after the site of Heshun city in the northeast of the county. The meaning of “Heshun” derived from a story: after Shile became the emperor, he attached much importance to the opinions of the public and respected those talented people as well. He invited all the relatives and old friends in his homeland to Xiang Kingdom but found that Liyang, who used to fight with him for Ouma Pool, didn’t come. Shile said, “Liyang is really a hero. Why doesn’t he come? Ouma is just some insignificant conflict when we were ordinary people. Now as the emperor of the country, how can I hate you because of that?” Liyang went to apologize immediately after hearing about his words. Shile smiled and said to him, “we used to be tired of fighting with each other.” Then he granted Liyang with a great mansion and the title of a military officer. “Heshun” is a positive comment on Shile’s strategy of governing the country.


Xiyang County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and Zhan County was established in Xihan Dynasty. In Dading 2 of Jin Dynasty(1162), Pingding Zhou was set up which was changed to Xiyang County in 1914. According to the Records of Yuanhe County, Xiyang(昔阳in Chinese) was called Xiyang(夕阳in Chinese)before. As the ancient book of semantics Er’ya said, Shanxi means Xiyang while Shandong means Zhaoyang. Therefore, Xiyang(昔阳) was well-kown for being in the west of Mount Taihang.


Shouyang County


In Taikang period of Xijin Dynasty, Shouyang was established and became part of Leping County, which got its name from the north of Shou River. In Chinese, the north of the river is called Yang, so it was called Shouyang. In Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), Shouyang was removed to Daling city (the current Wenshui County) and was changed to Shou County. In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), Shouyang County was set up in the site of Shouyang city under the control of Bingzhou. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty (623), Shouzhou was established in Yang County, and in Zhenguan 8 of Tang Dynasty (634), Shouzhou was abolished and still belonged to Bingzhou. In Zhenguan 11(637) 受阳(Shouyang)was changed to 寿阳(Shouyang).


Linfen city


In Beiwei Dynasty, City of White Horse was built in the current Linfen city district, and Pingyang County was removed here. In Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty(583), Wen King Yangjian of Sui Dynasty changed Pingyang County to Linfen County which means bordering Fen River, because the pronunciation of 平阳 is the same as 平杨 in Chinese, and 杨 in Chinese violated the taboo of the king’s name. in 1971, Linfen city was set up here and in 2001 prefectural-level Linfen city was set up here and has jurisdiction over one district, two cities and fourteen counties.


Yaodu District


Yaidu District was said to be the birthplace of Yao Emperor Taotangshi who was one of the Five Emperors and the first civilized emperor in history. It was said to be the place where Yao Emperor set up the capital. Pingyang County was established here in Jin Kingdom of the Spring-and-Autumn period and existed in the following Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties. In 2001, prefectural-level Linfen city was set up here and the county-level Linfen city was changed to Yaodu district in memory of Pingyang, the capital of Yao Emperor.


Houma City


It was called Xintian in the ancient time and the capital of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. Qin and Han Dynasties set up Jiang County here. Liubang, the first emperor of Han Dynasty granted this county to the marquis Zhoubo. In Donghan Dynasty, Wei Dynasty and the two Jin Dynasties, Jiangyi County was established here. In Hongwu 8 of Ming Dynasty (1375), Jintai Post transferred to Xiamali. But “Xiama” was a taboo at that time and “Xia” was pronounced “Hou” in the local dialect, so the post was changed to Houma Post and Houma became the official name of the place. In 1958, Quwo, Xinjiang and Fencheng were merged to form Houma City which was replaced by Quwo County in 1962. In 1971, Houma City was set up again.


Huozhou City


In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was changed to Huoyi County and in Zhenyou 3 of Jin Dynasty (1215) Huozhou was set up here which was named after Huotai Mountain in it. In 1912, Jiangzhou was a county called Huo County and in 1990 the county was abolished and Huozhou City was established here.


Quwo County


Quwo was named after Wo Spring (Jingming Waterfalls now) which entered Hui River in the north and entered Fen River in the west. In 26 under the control of Ping King of Zhou Dynasty (745 BC), Zhaohou of Jin Dynasty granted Chengshi (also Huanshu) with this place called Wo Kingdom. Xihan Dynasty set up Jiang County which was changed to Jiangyi County in Donghan Dynasty. in Taihe 11 of Beiwei Dynasty(487), Jiangyi County was abolished and Quwo County was set up here.


Yicheng County


In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was called Ancient Yicheng, which was located in Gucheng Village at the bottom of Xiang’ao Mountain that looked like the opening wings of a bird. In Chinese, “Yi” means the wing of a bird. This is why the county was called Yicheng.


Fushan County


In Wude 2 of Tang Dynasty (619), Fushan County was set up. It is said that in the periods of Yao Emperor and Shun Emperor, the area was often flooded and the mountain here was just like floating in the water. Floating mountain means Fushan in Chinese. This is how Fushan County got its name.


Xiangfen County


Xiangling County and Fencheng County were merged to form Xiangfen County in September of 1954. The former Xiangling County was named after the graveyard of Xinggong of Jin Dynasty, because graveyard means Ling in Chinese. Fen city was named after Fen River by which it was located.


Hongdong County


It was Yangshi County of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn, and was changed to Yang County later. In the first year of Yining of Sui Dynasty (617), after Liyuan got the authority of Sui Dynasty, he changed Yang County to Hongdong County because he hated “Yang”, the family name of the emperor of Sui Dynasty. According to the records of the county, the county was named after Hongya Ancient Cave where the god Hongya lived in the prehistoric period. Cave in Chinese means Dong, so the county was named Hongdong.


Anze County


It was called Yishi(陭氏 in Chinese) County in Xihan Dynasty and was changed to Yishi(猗氏 in Chinese) County in Donghan Dynasty. In the first year of Jinayi period of Beiwei Dynasty (528), Yishi was changed to Jishi, and Anze County was established in the west (within Gu County now). Because it was located between Anji and Ze Spring, and therefore it was named after the initial letters of the two springs.


Gu County


Gu County was Yueyang in the ancient time. It was Anze County established in the first year of Jianyi period of Beiwei Dynasty (526). In Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Yueyang County which was changed to Anze County in 1914. In 1971, seven communes in the west of Anze County and 3 communes in the north of Fushan County were merged to form a county which was called Gu County because the name Yueyang couldn’t be used again.(There is a city called Yueyang in Hunan province.)


Fenxi County


Beiqi Dynasty set up Fenxi County and Linfen County here, and Fenxi County was abolished soon later. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), Linfen County was changed to Fenxi County because it was located in the west of Fen River.


Pu County


a hermit. In Shang Dynasty, it was called Jifang Hou Kingdom and it belonged to Puyi of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In Han Dynasty it was part of Puzi County. In Taiyuan 10 of Dongjin Dynasty (386), Dingyang County was set up here which was changed to Shicheng County in Taihe 21 of Beiwei Dynasty (497). In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), it reverted to Puzi County again. In the first year of Daye period of Sui Dynasty(605), it was changed to Pu County.


Xiangning County


Beiwei Dynasty set up Changning County and Pingchang County. In Tang Dynasty, Pingchang County was merged with Changning County. In the first year of Tongguang period of Post-Tang Dynasty of Five Dynasties (923), Changning County was changed to Xiangning County to avoid violating the taboo of the name of Zhuangzong King Li Cunxu’s grandfather Li Guochang.


Ji County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it was Quyi of Jin Kingdom which was called Beiqu as well. Qin Dynasty set up Beiju County here. Then Beiwei Dynasty set Dingyang County here. Yangjian, the emperor of Sui Dynasty, hated the symphony of 定阳(Dingyang)and 定杨(Dingyang), because “杨”was his family name. Therefore Dingyang County was changed to Jichang County. Jin Dynasty changed Jichang County to Ji Zhou. In 1912, Ji Zhou was changed to Ji County.


Daning County


It was called Sushui County in the ancient time. The local governor changed Sushui County to Daning County to avoid fights with Guihua County (Yonghe County now) for the borders and expect peace and harmony for ever. Daning means peace and harmony in English.


Xi County


In Kaihuang 5 of Sui Dynasty (585), it was called Xi Zhou. According to The Records of Yuanhe County in Tang Dynasty, the ancient semantic book Er’ya.Shidi said, “The damp low area was called Xi.”, and it was just located in the damp low area, so it was called Xi. Xizhou was changed to Xi County in 1912.


Yonghe County


It was called Guihua County in the ancient time. To avoid fights with Sushui County (Daning County now) for the borders, the local governor changed Guihua County to Yonghe County which means peace and harmony forever.


Lvliang City


It was named after Lvliang Mountain which winds from the north to the south of the county. Guji Mountain in the city was called Lvliang Mountain in the ancient time. According to Records of Fenzhou Fu, Lvliang Mountain, called Guji Mountai as well, stands on the right of Mount Taihang, on the left of Mount Hua, and surrounded by Mount Chang, Mount Song and Mount Heng. The mountain is located in the center just like the spine of the world.  The meaning of Guji in the ancient time is similar to Lvliang, so the county was named after Lvliang Mountain which had jurisdiction over one district, two cities and ten counties.


Jiaocheng County


It belonged to Beitang in Xizhou Dynasty which was the military site of Hushi. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, the northwestern mountainous area was the fief of Hushi and the southeastern area was the farmland of Qishi. In Qing King 12 of Jin Dynasty (514), Pingling County was set up in the area nearby Daling Village under the control of Pingling. It belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. The western area was Daling County and the eastern area was Jinyang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), part of Jinyang and Wenshui was separated to form Jiaocheng County which was named after the joining area of Fen River and Kong River. In Tianshou 2 under the control of Wu Queen in Tang Dynasty (691), the county was removed to Quepo Village in the south of the mountain.


Wenshui County


It belonged to the farmland of Qishi of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. It was called Daling Yi under the control of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. It was changed to Shouyang County (also West Shouyang) in Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448). In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), it was changed to Wenshui County because Wengu River in the county had a lot of waves. When Wu Zetian became the emperor of Tang Dynasty, she changed her homeland Wenshui County to Wuxing County. In the first year of Shenlong period of Tang Dynasty (705), it reverted to Wenshui County.


Fenyang City


It belonged to Jin Kingdom, in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Guayan County. it became part of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms under the jurisdiction of Zishi. In Huangchu 2 of Wei Kingdom of the time of Three Kingdoms, Zishi County was under the control of Xihe County in the former site of Zishi. Xihe County was changed to Xihe Kingdom in Xijin Dynasty which had jurisdiction over Xicheng County. In Taihe 12 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), Fen Zhou was established which was under the control of Xicheng County. In the first year of Shangyuan period of Tang Dynasty (760), Xicheng County was changed to Xihe County which didn’t change through the end of Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties, Song, Jin, Yuan and the beginning of Ming Dynasty. In Wanli 23 of Ming Dynasty (1595), Fenyang County was established which was named after Fen River. The county was located in the west of Fen River and the west of a river means Yang in Chinese. Fenyang Army settled Xihe County in Song and Jin Dynasties. In August of 1996, it was changed to Fenyang City.


Xiaoyi City


It belonged to Wei Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms and belonged to Taiyuan County in Qin Dynasty under the control of Zishi County. In the first year of Wei Kingdom in the period of Three Kingdoms, it was removed to Zhongyang County under the control of Xihe County of Bing Zhou. In the first year of Yongjia period of Xijin Dynasty, it became part of Xihe (隰河) County of Xihe (西河) under the jurisdiction of Bing Zhou. Beiwei Dynasty established Yong’an County which became famous for the filial behavior of Zhengxing who cut his own flesh to make soup for his mother for he was too poor to afford the meat in the first year of Zhenguan period of Tang Dynasty (627). When hearing about Zhengxing’s filial behavior, Taizong Emperor of Tang Dynasty had Yong’an County changed to Xiaoyi County which means “filial” in English. In February of 1992, it was changed to Xiaoyi City.


Jiaokou County


Jiaokou County was established in April of 1971. It consisted of 9 communes including Jiaokou, Shikou, Chuankou and Kangcheng separated from Xi County, Huilong and Shuangchi separated from Lingshi County, and Damaijiao, Tansu and Wenquan separated from Xiaoyi County. It was named after Jiaokou Town where the county was located and “Jiaokou” means the transportation pass connecting the north and the south of Lvliang Mountain.


Shilou County


It was Zhi Kingdom in Yinshang Dynasty and belonged to Qu in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. Xihan Dynasty set up Tujun County here under the jurisdiction of Xihe Prefecture. Tujun County was abolished at the beginning of Donghan Dynasty and in Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448) Yuxi County was established under the administration of Tujing Prefecturre which was changed to Tujing County in Taihe 21 (497). In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was changed to Shilou County which was named after Tongtian Mountain (Shilou Mountain now) that looked like high building made of rocks. A high building made of rocks is called Shilou in Chinese, and this is just the origin of the name of Shilou.


Liulin County


In July of 1971, part of the commune was separated from the west of Lishi County and Zhongyang County to form Liulin County which was named after Liulin Town where the city of the county was located. Liulin refers to willow trees in English.


Zhongyang County


It was called Zhongyang Yi in the period of Warring Kingdoms under the control of Zhao Kingdom. Xihan Dynasty set up Zhongyang County which derived from the meaning of the sun at noon. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, it was incorporated into Lishi County. In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), it was divided and set up Ningxiang and Pingyi Counties which belonged to Lishi County which was merged with Pingyi County in Sui Dynasty under the jurisdiction of Lishi Prefecture. In Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Shi Zhou and belonged to Taiyuan Prefecture in Song Dynasty. It was changed to Ningxiang County in Taihe period of Jin Dynasty which was changed to Zhongyang County in 1914.


Lishi District


It is said that it was named after the aerolite which fell down the county in the ancient time. Some other people say that it was called Lishi because of Lishi River in the northeast of the county. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was Lishi Yi of Zhao Kingdom and Xihan Dynasty set up Lishi County here which was changed to Lishi City in May of 1996 and Lishi District in June of 2004.


Fangshan County


Xihan Dynasty set up Gaolang County here and Wenxuan Emperor of Beiqi Dynasty established Liangquan County here. In Daye 3 of Sui Dynasty (607), it transferred to Fangshan Town which was changed to Fangshan County because it was at the foot of Fangshan Mountain.


Lan County


It was named after Kelan Mountai in it. At the beginning of Beiwei Dynasty, it was part of Xiurong. At the end of Beiwei Dynasty, Gaohuan overthrew Xiurong and set up Lan Zhou here. Then Sui Dynasty established Lancheng County here under the control of Loufan Prefecture. In Tang Dynasty it was changed to Yifang County which belonged to Lan Zhou which was adopted in Five Dynasties, Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Lan Zhou was degraded to Lan County.


Lin County


It belonged to Ji Zhou in Xia Dynasty and belonged to Zhao Kingdom in Zhou Dynasty. Xihan Dynasty set Linshui County which was named after Qiushui River (Ling River in the ancient time). In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), Wutu County and Wutu Sub-County were set up. In the first year of Kaihuang period of Sui Dynasty (581) Wutu Prefecture was changed to Taihe Prefecture and Wutu County was changed to Taihe County. In Kaihuang 3 the prefecture was abolished. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty (620), Taihe County was changed to Linquan County. In the first year of Tianhui of Jin Dynasty (1123), Linquan was changed to Linshui. In Zhiyuan 3 under the control of the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty (1266), Lin Zhou was established here which was abolished and changed to Lin County in Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369).


Xing County


Wenfen County was set up in the first year of Tianbao period of Beiqi Dynasty (550) and was changed to Linquan County, Linjin County and Hehe County in the following time. In Xingding 2 of Jin Dynasty (1218), Yang King of Jin Kingdom said, “This place is located nearby the river, and therefore the position is very important and people lead a prosperous life here. Hence, Hehe County should be changed to Xing Zhou which means prosperity. ” In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Xing Zhou was changed to Xing County.


Shuozhou City


“Shuo” refers to a place which is in the northern bordering area of two countries. In Tianbao 6 of Beiqi Dynasty, Shuozhou was set up in 47 kilometers southwest of Mayi, and eight years later it was removed to Mayi which is the current Shuozhou city. Since then, the name and location of Shuozhou haven’t changed for thousands of years. In 1989, Shuozhou city was set up which has jurisdiction over two districts and four counties.


Shuocheng District


“Shuo” here means the same as “Shuo” in “Shuozhou”. Under the control of the emperor Yao, it belonged to Jizhou, and under the control of the emperor Shun, it was part of Bingzhou. In Xia Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Hunzhou (also Xunzhou) and in Shang Dynasty, it belonged to Tufang. In Xizhou Dynasty, it became part of Beirong, in Spring-and-Autumn period; it was occupied by Beidi and in the Warring Kingdoms period it was under the control of Zhao Kingdom. After the unification of the six kingdoms by the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, Mayi County was established here and then Beiqi Dynasty set up Shuozhou here, which existed until Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the early period of the Republic of China, Shuo County was set up here, and then changed to Shuocheng District after the establishment of Shuozhou city in 1989.


Pinglu District


Ming Dynasty set up Pinglu Wei here and in Qing Dynasty Pinglu County was established here. In 1958, Pinglu and Shuo County were combined one called Shuo County. In 1961, Pinglu County reverted again and in 1989 Pinglu County was abolished and replaced by Pinglu District.


Shanyin County


It belonged to Dai Kingdom in the Spring-and-Autumn period and belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin Dynasty, it was part of Yanmen County while in Sui Dynasty it was under the control of Shenwu belonging to Mayi County. In Tang Dynasty, it was part of Mayi County under the control of Shuozhou. Then Liao Dynasty set up Heyin County which was changed to Shanyin County in Dading 7 of Jin Dynasty (1167) because it was located in the shadowy slope of Cuiwei Mountain, a branch of Mount Heng.


Huairen County


It belonged to Dai Kingdom in the Spring-and-Autumn period and belonged to Zhao Kingdome in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin and Han Dynasties it was part of Yanmen County, while in Sui Dynasty it was under the control of Yunnei County. In Tang Dynasty it belonged to Yunzhong County. Then Liao Dynasty set up Huairen County here, because Wu King of Tang Dynasty Li Keyong allied with the first emperor of Liao Dynasty Yelv Abaoji in the east city of Yunzhou and the name “Huairen” which means in memory of the great people.


Ying County


It was part of Mayi County and in late Tang Dynasty Yizhou was set up here. In the first year of the Republic of China, it was changed to Ying County because it was located between the Longshou Mountai and Yanmen Mountain and “Ying” in Chinese just expresses its geographical location of this kind.


Youyu County


In Hongwu 25 of Ming Dynasty (1392), Dingbian Wei was established. In Yongle 7(1409), Datong Youwei was set up and in Zhongtong period Yulin Wei was merged with Youwei as Youyulin Wei. In early Qing Dynasty, Youyu Wei was set up here which was changed to Youyu County in Yongzheng 3 (1725).


Taiyuan


In ancient classics such as Book of Songs, Book of Documents and Chronicle of Zuo,it was recorded than Bogu Kingdom quelled Youyun minority in Dayuan and the pioneer of handling water Taiyi cleared Fen River and Tao River to block the flood to protect Dayuan.Dayuan mentioned in those classics meant taiyuan and Taiyuan refers to big plain (“big” means the same as “tai” in ancient Chinese.). As the name of a place, Taiyuan appeared after the time of spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, Taiyuan belonged to Zhao Kingdom which took Jinyang as the capital. In Zhuangxiang King 2 of Qin Dynasty (248), the general Mengao overthrew Zhao Kingdom and settled in Taiyuan. Then in the following year Taiyuan County was established here. the capital was set in Jinyang and this was the beginning of the establishment of a county in Taiyuan. In Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Taiyuan referred to Taiyuan Fu in a broad sense and referred to Taiyuan City which developed from Tangming Town. In 16 of the Republic of China (1927), Taiyuan City was established which had jurisdiction over one city and three counties.


Xiaodian District


The name derived from Xiaodian Village which was formed at the beginning of Beisong Dynasty. After Song Dynasty destroyed Jinyang city, this place became the key place from the newly-built Pingjin County to the ancient site of Jinyang in the west. In the early time, there were only some small restaurants here, and then more and more business people gathered here to form a village gradually. Because the stores here were small but large in amount, the village was called Xiaodian which meant small stores. According to Records of Taiyuan County written in Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Xiaodian Village, which was firstly called Yong’an Village, was a transportation hub connecting roads of all directions. In 1954, the fourth district of Taiyuan was changed to Xiaodian District and the District Government settled in Xiaodian Village. In 1970, the suburb of Taiyuan City was divided into two parts---the south suburb and the north suburb. The government of the south suburb settled in Xiaodian Township. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division of the district and changed the south suburb to Xiaodian District.


Yingze District


It was named after Yingze Gate. In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, Taiyuan City was expanded and Yingze Gate (also called Big South Gate) was one of the eight gates of the city. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Yingze Street, Yingze Highway and Yingze Hotel were built here. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former south city district to Yingze district.


Xinghualing District


It was named after Xinghualing, the garden of the noble mansion of Lord Jin in Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty. The garden was called Xinghualing because many apricot trees (Xingshu in Chinese) were planted in the garden and its geographical position was a little high. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Xinghualing Street was built where the administration office of Xinghualing was situated. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and named the former north city district Xinghualing District.


Jiancaoping District


Once upon a time, there was a kind of flower with sharp pickles called Jiancaoping. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Jiancaoping Street, Jiancaoping Overpass and Jiancaoping Administration Office were established here. Jiancaoping went beyond the original meaning and referred to the area circling Taiyuan Iron Group. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former north suburb to Jiancaoping District.


Wanbolin District


It was named after the cypresses here. Before the liberation of Taiyuan, the local people planted a lot of cypresses here which were called cypress forest. In 1954, the fifth district of Taiyuan City was changed to Wanbolin District and in 1997 Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former Hexi District to Wanbolin District.


Jinyuan District


It was named Jinyuan because it was located in the source of Jinshui River and Yuan in Chinese means the source of a river. In history, Xiefu moved to the place nearby Jinshui River and changed Tang Kingdom to Jin Kingdom which meant the origin of Tang and Jin. In 1947, Jinyuan County was established here and in 1954 the sixth district of Taiyuan City was changed to Jinyuan District. In 1997 Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and established Jinyuan District,


Gujiao City


It was called Jiaocheng in the past. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Jiaocheng County was established here and in Tianshou 2 under the control of Wu Queen in Tang Dynasty (691) the county was removed to Quebo Village in the south of the mountain. Then the place was called Gujiao City, Gujiao for short. “故” and “古” have the same meaning in ancient Chinese, so it gradually evolved into “古交”(Gujiao). In Qing Dynasty, it was called Gujiao Town. In 1958, Gujiao Industrial and Mining District was established which was changed to Gujiao City in 1988.


Qingxu County


The name of the county is combined by the initial letters of Qingyuan County and Xugou County. Qingyuan County was named after Qingyuan River in Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596). In 5 of the Republic of China (1916), Qingyuan County was abolished and merged with Xugou County. Then the former county was changed to Qingyuan Town and it reverted to Qingyuan County the next year. Xugou County was named after Xugou formed by Jinshui River and Xiangyu River joining together which was also taken as the border of the city. In Dading 29 of Jin Dynasty (1189), Xugou County was established and in 1952 Qingyuan County and Xugou County were merged to form Qingxu County which adopted the initial letters of their names. It belonged to Yuci Special District at that time. In 1958, Qingxu County was put under the direct administration of Taiyuan City.


Yangqu County


In Supplement to Twenty-five Histories—Supplement to Gegraphical Records of Han History, Yingshao said, “ the river curved each thousand miles and the county is in the north of the river(the north of the river is called Yang in ancient Chinese), so it is called Yangqu.” Han Dynasty set up Yangqu County in the current Xiang County. In Jian’an 20 of Han Dynasty (215), Caocao moved the government of Yangqu County to the current Yangqu Town of Jiancaoping District of Taiyuan City. In Kaihuang 6 of Sui Dynasty (586), Wen Emperor of Sui Dynasty Yangjian changed it to Yangzhi County because he hated the word “Qu”. Later it reverted to Yangqu County again. In Taiping Xingguo 7 of Song Dynasty (982), the government of Yangqu County was removed to the outside of the west city of Taiyuan City. In Tianhui period of Jin Dynasty, it transferred to Taiyuan Fu and Yangqu County became the leading county of Shanxi province, which was called “Top County of Three Jin”


Loufan County


It was named after the ancient Loufan Tribe. There used to be Loufan Kingdom, Loufan Prefect, Loufan Jian and Loufan County here in history, but the capital was not in the current range of the county. Loufan as the special name of the current Loufan County started from Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Longji period of Tang Dynasty (889), Loufan County was set up. In the following time, it was abolished several times but established again. In Ming Dynasty, the county was abolished and replaced by a town which was under the jurisdiction of Jingle County. In 1971, Loufan County was reestablished which belonged to Lvliang area and in 1972 it was put under the direct administration of Taiyuan City.


Xinzhou City


In the ancient time, it was called Xiurong and belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it became part of Zhao Kingdom. In Qin Dynasty, divided by Gouzhu Mountain, the north of it belonged to Yanmen County and the south of it belonged to Taiyuan County. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, Xinxing County was established which was changed to Jinchang County in Xijin County. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), the county was abolished and replaced by Xin Zhou which was named after Xinkou here. According to another legend, during the fight with Xiongnu in the north, Gaozu emperor of Han Dynasty got out of the enemies in Xinkou when he withdrew from Pingcheng (Datong now). The soldiers of Han Dynasty were very happy to be out of the enemies. In Chinese “欣” which means happy has the same pronunciation as “忻” , so Xinkou was named Xin Zhou then. In 1949 it belonged to Xin County specially and in 1983 it was changed to Xinzhou District which was changed to Xinzhou City in 2001 which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and twelve counties.


Xinfu District


“Xin” means the same as “Xinzhou”. At the beginning of the Republic of China, it was changed to Xin County and in 1983 it was changed to Xinzhou City which was changed to Xinfu District in 2001.


Dingxiang County


According to the system of rewarding the emperors or lords after they died mentioned in Records of Grand History---Justice, exploiting the farmland and expanding the territory of the kingdom were both great accomplishments which deserved rewards.. Xihan Dynasty set up Dingxiang County in the north of Helinge’er of Inner Mongolia. Dingxiang indicated the peace and harmony of Helinge’er. Then at the end of HaN Dynasty, it transferred to Jinzhi from Inner Mongolia. In Wude 4 of Tang Dynasty (621), Dingxiang County was established in Jinzhi.


Wutai County


In Taihe 10 of Beiwei Dynasty (486), Lvyi County was set up and in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty (606) it was changed to Wutai County because of Mount Wutai in it. In Zhenyou 4 of Jin Dynasty (1216), it was upgraded to Taizhou. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Wutai County again.


Yuanping City


The county was just like a plain which meant Pingyuan in Chinese, so it was named Yuanping. In Yuanding 3 of Xihan Dynasty (114 BC), Yuanping County was firstly set up and changed to Guo County in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty (606). In the first year of Shenlong period of Tang Dynasty (705), it was changed to Tanglin County which was called Yuanping County again in 1958. In 1933, the county was abolished and a city was set up here.


Dai County


“Dai” in the name of Dai County derived from the name of Dai Kingdom or Dai County of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms which was set up by Wuling King of Zhao Kingdom. Dai County of Zhao Kingdom was one of 36 counties in Qin Dynasty which was located the current Dai County. In Gaozu 6 of Han Dynasty (201 BC), Liubang merged 53 counties such as Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai County to establish Dai Kingdom. After Han Dynasty, the name of Dai Kingdom was used often but the range of the county changed frequently. The current Dai County is an important proof of the name of an ancient place.


Fanzhi County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Hos( a minority group) Yi. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, Fanzhi(繁畤in Chinese ) County was firstly set up. The name Fanzhi derived from the mountains around the county. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Zhou was abolished and replaced by County. Fanzhi (繁畤 in Chinese) was changed to Fanzhi(繁峙in Chinese ).


Jingle County


At the beginning of Xihan Dynasty, Fenyang County was set up which was changed to Jingle County in Daye 4 of Sui Dynasty which meant peace and happiness. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty (623), Fenyang and Liudu were merged with Jingle County and a city was firstly built here. In Xianping 5 of Song Dynasty (1002), Xianzhou transferred to Jingle from Loufan and Jingle County was abolished. A city was built here for the first time. In Xining 3(1070), Xianzhou was established here which had jurisdiction over Jingle County. Then Jin Dynasty set up Jingle County here which was changed to Guan Zhou in Tiande 3(1151). Yuan Dynasty inherited the system set by Jin Dynasty and called it Guan Zhoui. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Jingle County again.


Ningwu County


In Dade 5 of Yuan Dynasty (1301), Ningwu Tun was established which was named Xianning Yanwu before. In Chenghua 4 of Ming Dynasty(1468), Ningwu Pass was set up here and in Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty(1725), Ningwu County was established which derived its name from the name of the pass.


Shenchi County


Shenchi in the name of the county refers to a holy pool in English. The holy pool is about 30 miles down from the north of Huanghua Wolds. It seemed to come from nowhere and never changed according to the weather changes. As to the holy pool, there is another legend. It is said in the ancient time a woman gave birth to two dragons without getting married. The dragons flew away and the woman disappeared as well. Her water increased gradually to form a pool which was called holy pool by the following people.


Wuzhai County


In Jiajing 16 of Ming Dynasty (1537), five castles which consisted of the east castle, the west castle, the south castle, the north castle and the middle castle, were built which were the origin of the name of the county. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Wuzhai County was set up here.


Xiurong County


In Beiwei Dynasty it belonged to Xiurong County and named Lan Zhou after Kelan Mountain in the county. In Daye 3 of Sui Dynasty (607), Kelan Township was set up which was changed to Kelan Zhou in Yongchun 2 of Tang Dynasty (683). In Chang’an 3 (703), Langu County was set up here under the control of Lan Zhou. In the period of Five Dynasties, it was still called Langu County by inheriting the former system. Song Dynasty established Kelan Army in Langu County. Jin Dynasty abolished the army and upgraded Langu County to Kelan County which was abolished in Yuan Dynasty. In Hongwu 8 of Ming Dynasty (1375), Kelan County was set up here and then replaced by Kelan Zhou. At the beginning of the Republic of China, it reverted to Kelan County again.


Hequ County


It was named Hequ County because it was located in the curve of the Yellow River and “Hequ” means the curve of the Yellow River in English. It belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms, and to Xuanwu of Xihe County in Han Dynasty. In Xijin Dynasty, it was under the control of Qianghu. In Tang Dynasty, it was part of Yifang County. Beihan Dynasty of Five Dynasties set up Xiongyong Township which belonged to Lan Zhou. In Xingguo 7 of Song Dynasty (982), Huoshan Army was established here. in Zhiping 4(1067), Huoshan County was set up here under the jurisdiction of Dai Zhou. In the first year of Zhenyuan period of Jin Dynasty (1153), Hequ County was established here which was upgraded to Huoshan Zhou in Dading 22(1182) and changed to Aozhou later. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Hequ County which belonged to Taiyuan Fu and in Yongzheng 2 of Qing Dynasty it was changed to Baode Zhou.


Baode County


In Chunhua 4 of Song Dynasty, Dingqiang Army was set up here and in the first year of Jingde period it was changed to Baode Army which meant that the residents were protected by the city and the city was protected by the morality. In Dading 11 of Jin Dynasty (1171), Baode County was set up here.


Pianguan Countu


In the first year of Tianhui period of Beihan Dynasty of Five Dynasties, a village was firstly established in Hangguang Ling which was high in the east and low in the west just like the unbalanced shape of the head of human beings. “Unbalanced shape of the head” means “Piantou” in Chinese, and therefore it was called Piantou Zhai. In Dade 3 of Yuan Dynasty (1299), village was upgraded to Guan which means pass in English. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Pianguan County was set up here.


Yangquan city


The name of Yangquan city is closely associated with the flowing spring and the natural environment here. Yangquan was the name of a village in the early time, and then used as the name of the railway station or the town. In May of 1947, it became the name of the city. According to the Guangxu version of Records of Pingding State in Qing Dynasty, Yangquan is 15 miles away in the west of the state, and there are five sources of the spring which spring out from the land. It was originally called Yangquan and then Yangyun. The Yangquan Village was set up not later than Beisong Dynasty and with the increase of the villagers, the village became two villages—Big Yangquan Village and Small Yangquan Village. In Guangxu 2 of Qing Dynasty (1906), Zhengtai railway ran through Small Yangquan Village and had a station called Yangquan Station built here. Since then, Yangquan town, an important town of commerce and military which circled the station, has gradually formed. In May of 1947, Yangquan city was officially set up and became the first city built and led by the CCP (the Chinese Communist Party), which has jurisdiction over three districts and two counties.


The city district of Yangquan city


In 1952, the first district was set up, and in 1956 it was changed to Zhanshang district due to the name of the railway station of Yangquan city. In 1957, it was merged with Yinying district to form the suburb and in 1958 it was changed to Zhanshang Commune. In 1963, it reverted to Zhanshang district again. In 1969, it was named the city district.


Yangquan Industrial and Mining DistrictI


in 1980, it became the industrial and mining district of Yangquan city, an administrative unit which used to be a combined unit of Yangquan Bureau of Mining and the government.


The suburb of Yangquan city


In 1952, the second district was set up here and in 1956 it was changed to Yinying district. By 1957, it was combined with Zhanshang district and formed the suburb. In 1958, Pingding County combined with the suburb was called the suburb of Yangquan city. In 1961, the suburb of Yangquan city was abolished and a people’s commune was set up under the direct administration of the municipal government. In 1963, it reverted to Yinying district again and in 1969, it was changed to the suburb of Yangquan city.


Pingding County


Shang’ai County was set up in Xihan Dynasty and in Beiwei Dynasty it was changed to Shi’ai County. In the first year of Tianbao period in Tang Dynasty (724), it was changed to Guangyang County. In Taiping Xinguo 2 of Song Dynasty (977), Pingding army was set up here, and in Taiping Xinguo 4, it was changed to Pingding County. According to the Guangxu version of Records of Pingding State in Qing Dynasty, the first emperor of Song Dynasty conquered the capital city of Hedong, and set up Pingding army here under the control of Zhenzhou. It was called Pingding which means the quelling of all rebels and the stability of the kingdom. (seen from the Book of Songs. Daya. Jianghan)


Yu County


In the Spring-and-Autumn time, the Baidi people established Qiudi Kingdom and was overthrown by Zhibo(Xunyao) of Jin Kingdom in early Warring Kingdoms. Then Yuanqiu city was established here. in Kaihuang 16(596), Yuanqiu County was set up here and in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty it was changed to Yu County because the shape of the county is just like a cuspidor which is high around and low in the middle. Shenzhong, Tixue (a official title) of Shanxi in Ming Dynasty described the geographical condition of Yu city in his poem To Yu City which said, “a city of three miles surrounded by mountains”.


Yuncheng City


The county was named Yuncheng because it was a city to transport salt and transport in Chinese means Yun. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. After Jin Dynasty was divided by Han, Zhao and Wei Kingdoms, it was under the control of Wei Kingdom. The first emperor of Qin Dynasty set up 36 counties and Yuncheng belonged to Hedong Prefecture which was called Hedong in the following time. In 1949, Yuncheng Special Administration was established and in 1954 Yuncheng and Linfen were merged to form Jinnan special area. In 1970 Jinnan was abolished and Yuncheng district was established again. It was changed to a prefectural-level city which had jurisdiction over one district, two cities and ten counties.


Yanhu District


In 1950, Yuncheng was under the jurisdiction of Yuncheng Special District and belonged to Jinnan Special District after abolishing Yuncheng Special District. In July of 1954, Jie County and Yu Township were merged to form Jieyu County and in July of 1955 Yuncheng Town was incorporated into Anyi County. In November of 1958, Anyi, Jieyu, Yongji and Linyi were merged to form Yuncheng County. From January of 1960 to July of 1961, Linyi ang Yongji were excluded from Yuncheng County. Yongji and Anyi were still called Yuncheng County which was changed to Yuncheng City in 1983. It was changed to Yanhu District in 2000, because of the salt lake (Yanhu) in it.


Yongji City


It was called Puban in the ancient time. Qin Dynasty set up Puban County. In Yongzheng 6 of Qing Dynasty (1728), Pu Zhou was upgraded to Pu Fu with an affiliated county Yongji which was named after the conservancy project Yongji Channel built in Ming Dynasty.


Hejin City


In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was Pishi Yi of Wei Kingdom. Qin Dynasty set up Pishi County here for the first time. In the first year of Tianfeng period under the control of Wangmang(14), it was changed to Yanping County. Then it reverted to Pishi County again in Donghan Dynaasty. In Taiping Zhenjun 7 of Beiwei Dynasty (446) it was named Longmen County which was changed to Hejin County in Xuanhe 2 of Song Dynasty (1120) because Yumen Crossing of the Yellow River is in the county and Hejin refers to the crossing of the river in English. In 1944, the county was abolished and replaced by a city here.


Linyi County


It was established in 1954 and the name Linyi derived from the initial letteres of Linshi County and Yishi County. There are two possible explainations to the origin of the name Linjin. One is that Qin Kingdom set a castle in the west bank of the Yellow River which was near Jin Kingdom and “near” refers to “Lin” in Chinese, so it was named Linjin. The other one is that it was called Jinyang in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and Jincheng in Tang Dynasty, so it was called Linjin. The origin of the name of Yishi can date back to the ancient Guyi Kingdom of Xia Dynasty. Just as History of Routes said, “there was a Yi Kingdom in Xia Dynasty.” Then Han Dynasty established Yishi County.


Wangrong County


Wanquan County and Ronghe County were merged to form Wanrong County which got its name from the initial letters of Wanquan and Ronghe. Wanquan was noted for the springs here. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty (620), Jishan, Anyi, Yishi, Fenyin and Longmen were combined to form Wanquan County. Ronghe belonged to Gengdi in Xizhou Dynasty. In Kaiyuan 10 (722), when the memorial temple of Houtu was repaired, an ancient tripod was discovered and therefore the county was changed to Baoding County for “tripod” in Chinese means “Ding”.  In Dazhong Xiangfu 4 of Song Dynasty (1011), Rong River flooded which was viewed as fortune by people, so it was changed to Ronghe County. In 1954, Wanquan County and Ronghe County were integrated.


Jishan County


It was called Ji in Shang and Zhou Dynasties. It belonged to Jin Kingdom and called Qingyuan in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms it was under the control of Zhao Kingdom and belonged to Hedong County in Qin Dynasty. In Xihan Dynasty, divided by Fen River, the south was Zuoyi County (Wenxi now) and the north was Changxiu County (Xinjiang now). In Donghan Dynasty, the north of Fen River was merged with Pishi (Hejin now) while the south of Fen River was merged with Wenxi County. Jishan Pavilion was built then. The county belonged to Longmen County at the beginning of Beiwei Dynasty. In Taihe 11 (487), Gaoliang County was set up here in control of the sub-county Gaoliang. In Kaihuang 2 of Sui Dynasty (582), Jiang Zhou transferred to Zhengping and a county was established in the north of Fen River. The county was named after Jishan Mountain in it, and the name has never changed since then.


Xinjiang County


It was called Taiping County in the first year of Dengguo period of Beiwei Dynasty (386) and in Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty (538) Zhengping County was set up here which was changed to Jiang Zhou in Daye 2 (606) which had jurisdiction over 8 counties including Zhengping, Yicheng, Quwo, Jishan, Longmen, Yuanqu, Taiping and Jiang County. in 1912, Jiang Zhou was abolished and Xinjiang County was set up here. Xinjiang in the name of the county means innovation. It was called Xinjiang County to be differentiated from Jiang County which was the beginning of the name of Xinjiang County.


Jiang County


It was named after Jiang Mountain in it. Chexiang city was built in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In Hui King 8 of Zhou Dynasty (669 BC), Xiangong of Jin Kingdom sent all the lords to gather in the capital and killed all the sons of the lords. Then he named Chexiang city Jiang County for the first time and made it the capital of Jin. Jiang belonged to Wei Kingdom after Han, Wei and Jin Kingdoms divided Jin Dynasty. In Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Hedong County and in Xihan Dynasty the place of Jiang expanded to include Quwo County and Yicheng County. In Taihe 8 of Beiwei Dynasty (494), Nanjiang County was established which was divided by Jiang Mountain between Jiang County and it. Nanjiang County was changed to Jiang County in Datong 5 of Xiwei Dynasty (539).


Yuanqu County


Yuan means wall in English and Qu refers to curve in English. The county was surrounded by mountains like walls and located in the bank of the curving Yellow River, and so it was called Yuanqu County. In Shang and Zhou Dynasties, it was Genfang under the control of Hou Kingdom. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and to Wei Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. It belonged to Hedong County in Qin Dynasty. Qin Dynasty set up Yuan County which was changed to Baishui County and Haocheng County in the South and North Dynasties. It reverted to Yuan County in Sui Dynassty which was changed to Yuanqu County in Song Dynasty. Since then Yuanqu has never changed.


Weixi County


It was called Zuoyi County in Qin Dynasty. in Yuanding 6 of Xihan Dynasty (111 BC), when Wu Emperor Liuche passed Tongxiang of Zuoyi on the way to Houshi of Henan, he got the good news of conquering Nanyue (Nanyue Kingdom, the area of the current Guangdong and Guangxi), so he changed Tongxiang to Wenxi County which meant getting the good news.


Xia Couinty


It belonged to Anyi in the ancient time which was named after the ancient capital of Yu Emperor in Xia Dynasty. 4500 years ago, Yu, who became emperor for his great accomplishments in handling the floods, Emperor established Xia Dynasty and the capital here. It belonged to Yi Zhou in Xia Dynasty under the control of Hou Kingdom. In Zhou Dynasty, it was part of Jin Kingdom and in Taihe 18 of Beiwei Dynasty (494) Xia County was set up here.


Pinglu County


It was called Yu in Xia Dynasty. After Wu Emperor of Zhou Dynasty granted this place to Zhongyong, the name of the country was still Yu. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Taiyang Yi. At the beginning of Han Dynasty, Dayang County was set up which was called Taiyang County as well. In Tianhe 2 of Beizhou Dynasty (567), it was changed to Hebei County. In the first year of Tianbao period of Tang Dynasty (724), the governor of Shan County Li Qiwu got an ancient sword which was inscribed with Pinglu indicating fortune. Therefore it was called Pinglu County.


Ruicheng County


At the beginning of Xizhou Dynasty, Wu Emperor granted this place to the Ji family which was called Wei Kingdom. Xiangong of Jin overthrew Wei Kingdom and granted this place to Dafu Rui Biwan, so the place was called Ruicheng or Weicheng. Han Dynasty set up Hebei County and Xiwei Dynasty set up Anrong County in the east of the current county here. In Ming King 2 of Beizhou Dynasty (558), Ruicheng County was established for the first time. In Wude 2 of Tang Dynasty (619), Rui Zhou was set up here which had jurisdiction over Ruicheng and Yongle County. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was still called Ruicheng County here.


The origin of the names of the counties of Changzhi


Changzhi city: it was called Shangdang in ancient China. It is located on Mount Taihang and the highest area of the city is just like in the heaven. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, Shangdang County was firstly set up and in the South and North Dynasties, it was changed to Luzhou. In Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty(1529), it was changed to Lu’an Fu,and had set up Changzhi County which means long-lasting security and peace. Two districts and ten counties are under the jurisdiction of the county.


The urban area of Changzhi city: Changzhi city was set up in 1946 and changed to industrial and mining area. Then in 1952, it reverted to Changzhi city again, and in 1975 it was made a provincial-level city with a city district and the suburb. In 1976, the city district of Changzhi became a county-level district officially.


The suburb of Changzhi city: Changzhi city was set up in 1946 and changed to the district of coalmine industry. Then in 1952, it reverted to Changzhi city again, and in 1975 it was made a provincial-level city with the urban area and the suburb. In 1976, the suburb of Changzhi became a prefectural-level district officially.


Changzhi County: in the Spring-and-Autumn period, it was under the jurisdiction of Lushi Branch of Chidi Tribe of Jin Dynasty. Then in the time of Warring Kingdom, it was the capital of Han Kingdom, under the control of Shangdang County. In Han Dynasty, it was part of Huguan. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), Huguan was divided and Shangdang Conunty was set up. In Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty (1529), Luzhou was upgraded to Lu’an Fu with an affiliated county Changzhi, which means long-lasting security and peace.


Lucheng city: in the period of Huang Emperor, Canlu, the descendent of Yan Emperor, established Lu Kingdom in the current Lucheng city. After Wuding of Shang Dynasty, wars between Shang Dynasty and the kingdoms in the northwest such as Guifang Kingdom and Tufang Kingdom took place frequently. Those kingdoms scattered in the south of Shanxi Province, and Xiluo Guirong which belonged to Guifang Kingdom was living in the current Lucheng city. According to the historians who study Qin Dynasty, “Luo” means “Lu”, which is the origin of the meaning of “Lu” in Lu Kingdomg. In Shang Dynasty, it was the fief of Ziwei, called Ziwei Kingdom. In Xizhou Dynasty, it was called Lu. In the Spring-and-Autumn period, it was Luzi Ying’er Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Lu County was set up and in Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596) Lucheng County was established. In Tianyou 2 of Tang Dynasty (905), it was changed to Luzi County and in the period of Five Dynasties, it reverted to Lucheng County again. In 1994, the county was replaced by a city here.


Tunliu County: it started in Zhou Dynasty. The east of Tunliu was called Liuxu while the west of it belonged to Xuwushi. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, Liuxu and Xuwu were merged with Jin Kingdom. Liuxu was called Chunliu as well. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, Chunliu was changed to Tunliu and Xuwu was changed to Yuwu, which both belonged to Han Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Tunliu County and Yuwu County were established and in Donghan Dynasty, Yuwu was merged with Tunliu.


Zhangzi County: it is said Zhangzi County was the fief of Danzhu, the first son of Yao Emperor in prehistory. In Qin and Han Dynasty, Zhangzi County was set up. In Kaihuang 9 of Sui Dynasty (589), it was changed to Jishi County and in Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it reverted to Zhangzi County again.


Huguang County: the county was located between Bai Gu Mountain (the current Laoding Mountain) in the north and Shuanglong Mountain in the south. The shape of the mountains is just like a kettle (Hu in Chinese) and the pass is just at the opening of the kettle. Therefore the county was called Huguan (the opening of the kettle in Chinese). In the first year of Xihan Dynasty (206 BC), Huguan County was set up.


Pingshun County: it was called Qingyangli and under the control of Lucheng County in Ming Dynasty. In Jiajing 3 of Ming Dynasty (1524), the farmer’s rebellion led by Chenqing broke out. After the rebellion, to strengthen the control over the farmers of Qingyangli, in Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty (1529), the government set up Pingshun County in Qingyangli where Chenqing led the rebellion. Pingshun means quelling the rebels and satisfying the people’s expectation.


Licheng County: in Spring-and-Autumn time, it was Lihou Kingdom, and in Han Dynasy, Three Kingdoms and the two Jin Dynasties, it was under the jurisdiction of Lu County. In Taipingzhenjun 11 of Beiwei Dynasty (450), Lucheng County was abolished and Yiling County was set up. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Licheng County.


Xiangyuan County: it was called Xiangyuan County because Zhao Xiangzi set up a city here in the time of Warring Kingdom. In Xihan Dynasty, Xiangyuan County was set up and in Beiwei Dynasty, it was called Xiangyuan County. In Jiande 6 of Beizhou Dynasty (577), Xingyuan County was changed to Han State, and therefore it was called Ancient Han as well.


Wuxiang County: it was called Wuxiang County because there were Wu Mountain and Wuxiang River in the county. In Xihan Dynasty, Nieshi County was set up and in Donghan Dynasty it was changed to Nie County. In Qinshi period of Wu King of Xijin Dynasty, Nie County consisted of three sub-counties: Wuxiang, Laoyang and Nie. This is the origin of the name of Wuxiang County.


Qincounty: Chidi tribe lived here in the period of Spring-and-Autumn, and it was called a county from Han Dynasty. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty(596), it got the name “Qinzhou”because of Qin River in it. In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, Wuxiang and Qinyuan were under the control of Qinzhou, and Qing Dynasty still called it Qinzhou like Ming Dynasty. In 1911, it was changed to Qin County


Qinyuan County: in Xihan Dynasty, a county Guyuan was firstly set up here, which belonged to Shangdang County. In Xinmang period, it was changed to Gujin County and in Donghan Dynasty it reverted to Guyuan County again. In the first year of Jianyi period of Xiaozhuang King in Beiwei Dynasty (528), it was called Qinyuan County because Qin River starts from the Channel of Erlang God in the northwest of the county.
 


The Origin of the Names of the Counties in Shanxi Province

In Kaihuang period of Sui Dynasty, Datong city was established in the current Urad Front Banner of Inner Mongolia to defend against the invasion of Turkic people. “Datong” means the unification of the country. In late Tang Dynasty, with the migration of Shatuo people into the mainland, Datong was set up here and since then the name Datong has never changed. In history, Datong was always the central city of the northern part of China, which was called the capital of three dynasties and key city of two dynasties. In history, it is a strategic place which the military strategists were contesting for. It connects Shanggu in the east, reaches Mount Heng in the south, borders the Yellow River in the west and is adjacent to the desert in the north. It really played a very significant role in defending the capital and the central plain area. Four districts and seven counties are under the control of it.

 

City District of Datong City

 

On May 2 of 1949, Datong was liberated peacefully and was changed to a city from a county. The city district was part of the city which was called the inner city. At the beginning it consisted of four districts which were changed to three in 1950. In 1952, there were only two districts. One of them had jurisdiction over North Yu, Northwest Yu and North Guan; the other controlled Southeast Yu, Southwest Yu, South Guan and East Guan. The public bureau of the district was changed to the people’s government at this time. In February of 1954, Datong City was established by combining the two districts and in April of this year Datong city was changed to City District of Datong City.


Datong Industrial and Mining District


In March of 1950, the office of Kouquan Industrial and Mining District was established in Datong city and in April of 1951 it was changed to the people’s government of Kouquan Industrial and Mining District. In 1955, Kouquan Industrial and Mining District was changed to Kouquan District and in May of 1966, the city district and the agricultural area of Kouquan District were combined to form the suburb and things related to the towns became the center of Kouquan District. In October of 1970, Datong Industrial and Mining District was established from Kouquan District.


The South Suburb


In March of 1950, the office of Kouquan Coalmine was established in Datong city and in April of 1951 it was changed to the people’s government of Kouquan Coalmine District. in May of 1966, the city district and the agricultural area under the control of Kouquan District were combined to form the suburb. In October of 1970, the suburb was abolished and the south suburb was officially set up.

 

Xinrong District


At the beginning of new China, Xinrong District belonged to Datong city and Zuoyun County respectively under the control of Chaha’er Province. In 1958, apart from Guojiayao, Dongshengzhuang and Polu, the other areas were put under the jurisdiction of the suburb of Datong city. In 1960, it became part of Gucheng District and in 1964 it reverted to be under the jurisdiction of Datong County. In 1970, the north suburb of Datong was established in the west of Xinrong District. In April of 1972, it was changed to Xinrong District because of the name of the village where it was located.

 

Datong County


The origin of the name of the county is the same as Datong city. In May of 1949, Datong was liberated and the counties in the east and west merged under the jurisdiction of Yanbei area of Chaha’er Province. In 1954, it was combined with Huairen County and formed Daren County and in 1958 it became part of Datong called Big Suburb. In 1960, Datong County was changed to Gucheng District. In 1965, Datong County was rebuilt and belonged to Yanbei. On 1 July of 1993, Yanbei area was combined with Datong city under the jurisdiction of Datong. The administrative center of Datong County has always been in the city and in 1971 the administrative center transderred to Xiping Town.

 

Yanggao County


Gaoliu County was set up in Han Dynasty and later became Gaoliu County of Hengzhou, which had jurisdiction over Gaoliu County and Anyang County. In Hongwu 26 of Ming Dynasty (1393), Yanghe Wei was established and in Hongwu 31(1398) a city was built in the current site which was called Yanghe city because of the name of the river Yang River where it was located. In the first year of Xuande (1426), it became part of Gaoshan Wei. Later Yanghe Tongpan was established. In Shunzhi 3 of Qing Dynasty (1646), Yanghe and Gaoshan were combined to form Yanggao Wei and in Yongzheng 3(1725) Wei was changed to County, which was the origin of the name of Yanggao County.


Tianzhen County


In the time of Warring Kingdoms, it was Yanling Yi of Zhao Kingdom and Tang Dynasty set up Tiancheng Army here. Then it was Tiancheng County in Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties. At the beginning of Ming Dynasty (1368) it was changed to Tiancheng Wei and in the first year of Hongxi (1425) Zhenlu Wei was set up.


Hunyuan County


Xihan Dynasty set up Guo County and Pingshu County which belonged to Yanmen County and Dai County respectively. Then the two counties were merged to be Guo County under the jurisdiction of Hengshan County. In Jianwu period of Donghan Dynasty, Guo County was abolished and Changshan Pass was established (Changshan is another name of Mount Heng to avoid violating the taboo of Wen King Liuheng.) In the time of Three Kingdoms, Caowei Kingdom reset Guo County and then Beiwei Dynasty set up Guoshan County which was under the jurisdiction of Sizhou, the inner land of Jingji. At the beginning of Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Yunzhou and then Hunyuan County was divided and reset.


Lingqiu County


The name of Lingqiu emerged as early as in the time of Warring Kingdoms because it was the place where Wu King of Zhao Kingdom was buried here after dying. In Gaozu 11 of Han Dynasty (196 BC), Lingqiu County was set up here and belonged to Dai County of Youzhou. In Donghan Dynasty, it was part of Zhongshan Kingdom and was abolished later. Then Beiwei Dynasty rebuilt Lingqiu County which was under the control of Sizhou.


Guangling County


It was called Pingshu Yi under the control of Zhao Kingdom in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Dai County and then Xihan Dynasty set up Pingshu County under the jurisdiction of Dai County of Youzhou. In Tonghe 13 of Liao Dynasty (995), Guangling County was established, the name of which derived from the Ling Spring 15 kilometers away in the west of the county.


Zuoyun County


In Hongwu 26 of Ming Dynasty (1393), Shuowei Town was set up. In Yongle 7(1409), it was changed to Zuowei. In Zhengtong 14(1449), Yunchuan Wei outside the Great Wall was merged with it to form Zuoyunchuan Wei. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Weishe County was changed to Zuoyun County.


Jincheng


It is called Zezhou in the ancient time and was under the jurisdiction of Jin Dynasty. In 376 BC, Jin Dynasty was divided into three parts by Wei, Zhao and Han, and the last emperor of Jin Dynasty Jinggong was forced to move to Duanshi. Gaodu was made the place where the emperor worshipped the ancestors and god, which is the origin of the name of Jincheng. In 1983, Jincheng County was changed into Jincheng city (county level). In 1985, the southeast area was abolished and Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and four counties.


City District of Jincheng


In 1985, Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city, which consisted of the city district and the suburb (Zezhou County now). This is the beginning of the establishment of the city.


Zezhou County


In Qin and Han Dynasty, Gaogu County, Yang’e County, and Gaodu County were set up. In Beiwei Dynasty, it belonged to Jianzhou. In Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty (583), Jianzhou was changed to Zezhou for it is nearby Huoze River. From Wude 3(620), it was called Jincheng County, and then changed its name for many times such as Jincheng and Danzhou. In 1985, Jincheng city was upgraded to a prefectural-level city, which originally consisted of the city urban area and the surburbs. In 1996, the suburb was replaced by Zezhou County.


Gaoping City


In Yongan 2 of Beiwei Dynasty, Gaoping County was set up, and it got the name Gaoping from its special geographical conditions that the middle area is a plain with mountains around. Tianbao 7 of Beiqi Dynasty (556), Gaoping County was changed to Pinggao County. At the end of Beiqi Dynasty, Pinggao County was changed to Gaoping County again and in 1994 it was upgraded to a city.


Yangcheng County


It was called Huoze in the ancient time. In the first year of Tianbao period of Tang Dynasty (742), Huoze County was changed to Yangcheng County, for the county was located in Yanglingyi, which was the site of Yang’e. The site of Yang’e was adjacent to He Mountain in the south. Just as the semantic book Erya.Shidi says, Big Ling is located in the original site of Yang’e. Yang Spring flows through the county, so it is called Yanghe Counyt or Yangling County.


Lingchuan County


In Zhou Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Jin Kingdom, while in Qing Dynasty it belonged to Shangdang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), Lingchuan County was set up in the place of Gaoping, which got its name from the name of the mountains. In Zhiyuan 3 under the control of the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty(1266),it was merged with Jincheng County, and in Zhiyuan 31(1294) it reverted to the jurisdiction of Lingchuan County again.


Qinshui County


In Qin and Han Dynasties, Duanshi County was set up. In Beiqi Dynasty, it was changed to Yongning County. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it got a new name Qinshui County because of Qinhe River which flew through the county.


Jinzhong City


In August of 1949, Yuci special district was established and it was changed to Jinzhong special district because it was located in the central part of Shanxi province and “Zhong” in Chinese means the central area. Since September of 1968, it has been called Jinzhong area. In September of 1999, it was changed to prefectural-level Jinzhong city which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and nine counties.


Yuci District


In Spring-and-Autumn period, Yuzhou Kingdom was established in the territory of Yuwang who was the eighth emperor of Yan. To honor Yuwang, the following people called the central area of Yuzhou Kingdom Yushe which means the kingdom of Yuwang emperor. The marginal area is called Yuci. In Beiwei and Beiqi Dynasties, it was changed to Zhongdu County twice. In 979, the first emperor of Song Dynasty overthrew Beihan Dynasty and destroyed Jinyang city and set up Bingzhou in Yuci. Three years later, Bingzhou was removed to Tangming Township and Yuci reverted to the administration of a county, which was never changed in the following dynasties. In 1958, Yuci city of county-level was set up and in 1999 it was changed to Yuci District.


Taigu County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it belonged to Jin Kingdom. Under the control of King Xiang of Zhou Dynasty, the marquis of Jin granted this place to Dafu Yang Chufu as his fief, which was called Yangyi then. In Xihan Dynasty, Yangyi County was set up. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), the county was called Taigu County because it was located in the valley of Mount Taihang and Taigu in Chinese means the valley of Mount Taihang.



Qi County


Qi County was noted for the swamps with grass in the ancient time. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it was under the jurisdiction of Jin Kingdom and in Pinggong 2 of Jin Kingdom, the place of Qi was granted to Dafu Qixi as his fief. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, it belonged to Zhao Kingdom and in Xihan Dynasty, Qi County was set up. In Xinmang period, Qi County was changed to Shi County. And Donghan Dynasty used the name Qi County again. In Tianbao 7 of Beiqi Dynasty, Qi County was abolished and in Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty it was rebuilt under the control of Bingzhou. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty, Taizhou was set up in Taigu County and Qi County belonged to Taihzou. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty, Taizhou was abolished and Qi County became part of Bingzhou again. In Song Dynasty, it belonged to Taiyuan Fu, while in Jin Dynasty it was changed to Qi County under the control of Bingzhou. In Yuan Dynasty it was still called Qi County but under the jurisdiction of Taiyuan Lu.


Pingyao County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it belonged to Jin Kingdom and when it comes to the time of Warring Kingdoms it became part of Zhao Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Pingyao County covered the areas of Jingling County, Zhongdu County and Wu County. In Xihan Dynasty, Pingtao County was set up and in the time of Taiwu Emperor, Zhongdu County was removed to Yuci under the jurisdiction of Pingtao County. The administrative institute was removed to Jingling Village and Pingtao County was changed to Pingyao County to avoid violating the taboo of the name of Taiwu Emperor Tuobatao. Meanwhile Jingling County was abolished and transferred to the control of Pingyao County. Since then, Pingyao County has never changed its name. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Qingshi County was set up which was abolished in the first year of Daye period. Pingyao County was under the jurisdiction of Fenzhou in most time of history.


Jiexiu city



In 636 BC, Wengong King of Jin Kingdom returned to reward his ministers, but Jie Zitui rejected the reward and became a hermit living in Mian Mountain with his mother. Wengong King of Jin Kingdom burned the trees to invite him back, but Zitui would rather choose to die together with his mother than go back with the king. Therefore the name of Jiexiu city derives from the anecdote that Jie Zitui used to rest in peace here, and in Chinese “Xiu” means resting in peace. Since 514 BC, Wu County was set up in the east and Pingzhou Yi was set up in the west. The first emperor of Qin Dynasty set up a county and Jiexiu(界休in Chinese) in the city district which was changed to Jiemei, Jiexiu(介休 in Chinese) and Pingchang in the following time. Beizhou Dynasty established Jiexiu County here. In Sui and Tang Dynasites, Jiexiu County and Jiezhou was established here.


Lingshi County


In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty, Wen King Yangjian visited the northern area and dug Fen River to clear the way for the visit. A giant stone was dug out from the river. It seemed like both stone and iron with a pale color and clang and was viewed as a holy stone at that time. Therefore it was called Lingshi (holy stone in Chinese). Then the king set up Lingshi County in the southwest of Pingchang County.


Yushe County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, the eighth Yan King Yuwang set up Yuzhou Kingdom in his territory. The following people called the central area of Yuzhou Kingdom Yushe which means the country of Yuwang King in memory of Yuwang. The marginal area was called Yuci. In Nan Dynasty, it was the affiliated state of Jizi which was called Ji. It belonged to Bingzhou in Zhou Dynasty and in the time of Spring-and-Autumn it was part of Jin Kingdom. In the Warring Kingdoms period, it belonged to Han Kingdom and then Zhao Kingdom. Till Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Shangdang County. Then Han Dynasty set up Nieshi County here. In Jin Dynasty, Nieshi County was divided and Wuxiang County was established in part of it. Yushe then was under the jurisdiction of Wuxiang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Wuxiang County was divided and Yushe County was set up in part of it.


Zuoquan County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was part of Han Kingdom and then belonged to Zhao Kingdom. In Qin Dynasty, it was under the control of Shangdang County. In Xihan Dynasty, it was part of Nieshi County. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, Laohe County was established here because Lao River (the west source of Qingzhang River) flew through this area. It belonged to Shangdang County at that time. Then Xinjin Dynasty changed it to Laoyang County which was under the control of Leping County. In Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), it became a township, and in Xiaochang 3(526), a county was reestablished named Liaoyang. Then it became part of Liangyu County (Heshun County now). In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), it was named Liaoshan County after Liao Mountain in the northwest of the county. On September 18 of 1942, Liao County was changed to Zuoquan County in memory of the chief of staff of the eight route army general Zuoquan who sacrificed his life in Matian of Liao County.


Heshun County


Beiqi Dynasty set up Liangyu County, the name of which derived from Liangyu River in it. In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Heshun County which was named after the site of Heshun city in the northeast of the county. The meaning of “Heshun” derived from a story: after Shile became the emperor, he attached much importance to the opinions of the public and respected those talented people as well. He invited all the relatives and old friends in his homeland to Xiang Kingdom but found that Liyang, who used to fight with him for Ouma Pool, didn’t come. Shile said, “Liyang is really a hero. Why doesn’t he come? Ouma is just some insignificant conflict when we were ordinary people. Now as the emperor of the country, how can I hate you because of that?” Liyang went to apologize immediately after hearing about his words. Shile smiled and said to him, “we used to be tired of fighting with each other.” Then he granted Liyang with a great mansion and the title of a military officer. “Heshun” is a positive comment on Shile’s strategy of governing the country.


Xiyang County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and Zhan County was established in Xihan Dynasty. In Dading 2 of Jin Dynasty(1162), Pingding Zhou was set up which was changed to Xiyang County in 1914. According to the Records of Yuanhe County, Xiyang(昔阳in Chinese) was called Xiyang(夕阳in Chinese)before. As the ancient book of semantics Er’ya said, Shanxi means Xiyang while Shandong means Zhaoyang. Therefore, Xiyang(昔阳) was well-kown for being in the west of Mount Taihang.


Shouyang County


In Taikang period of Xijin Dynasty, Shouyang was established and became part of Leping County, which got its name from the north of Shou River. In Chinese, the north of the river is called Yang, so it was called Shouyang. In Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), Shouyang was removed to Daling city (the current Wenshui County) and was changed to Shou County. In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), Shouyang County was set up in the site of Shouyang city under the control of Bingzhou. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty (623), Shouzhou was established in Yang County, and in Zhenguan 8 of Tang Dynasty (634), Shouzhou was abolished and still belonged to Bingzhou. In Zhenguan 11(637) 受阳(Shouyang)was changed to 寿阳(Shouyang).


Linfen city


In Beiwei Dynasty, City of White Horse was built in the current Linfen city district, and Pingyang County was removed here. In Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty(583), Wen King Yangjian of Sui Dynasty changed Pingyang County to Linfen County which means bordering Fen River, because the pronunciation of 平阳 is the same as 平杨 in Chinese, and 杨 in Chinese violated the taboo of the king’s name. in 1971, Linfen city was set up here and in 2001 prefectural-level Linfen city was set up here and has jurisdiction over one district, two cities and fourteen counties.


Yaodu District


Yaidu District was said to be the birthplace of Yao Emperor Taotangshi who was one of the Five Emperors and the first civilized emperor in history. It was said to be the place where Yao Emperor set up the capital. Pingyang County was established here in Jin Kingdom of the Spring-and-Autumn period and existed in the following Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties. In 2001, prefectural-level Linfen city was set up here and the county-level Linfen city was changed to Yaodu district in memory of Pingyang, the capital of Yao Emperor.


Houma City


It was called Xintian in the ancient time and the capital of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. Qin and Han Dynasties set up Jiang County here. Liubang, the first emperor of Han Dynasty granted this county to the marquis Zhoubo. In Donghan Dynasty, Wei Dynasty and the two Jin Dynasties, Jiangyi County was established here. In Hongwu 8 of Ming Dynasty (1375), Jintai Post transferred to Xiamali. But “Xiama” was a taboo at that time and “Xia” was pronounced “Hou” in the local dialect, so the post was changed to Houma Post and Houma became the official name of the place. In 1958, Quwo, Xinjiang and Fencheng were merged to form Houma City which was replaced by Quwo County in 1962. In 1971, Houma City was set up again.


Huozhou City


In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was changed to Huoyi County and in Zhenyou 3 of Jin Dynasty (1215) Huozhou was set up here which was named after Huotai Mountain in it. In 1912, Jiangzhou was a county called Huo County and in 1990 the county was abolished and Huozhou City was established here.


Quwo County


Quwo was named after Wo Spring (Jingming Waterfalls now) which entered Hui River in the north and entered Fen River in the west. In 26 under the control of Ping King of Zhou Dynasty (745 BC), Zhaohou of Jin Dynasty granted Chengshi (also Huanshu) with this place called Wo Kingdom. Xihan Dynasty set up Jiang County which was changed to Jiangyi County in Donghan Dynasty. in Taihe 11 of Beiwei Dynasty(487), Jiangyi County was abolished and Quwo County was set up here.


Yicheng County


In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was called Ancient Yicheng, which was located in Gucheng Village at the bottom of Xiang’ao Mountain that looked like the opening wings of a bird. In Chinese, “Yi” means the wing of a bird. This is why the county was called Yicheng.


Fushan County


In Wude 2 of Tang Dynasty (619), Fushan County was set up. It is said that in the periods of Yao Emperor and Shun Emperor, the area was often flooded and the mountain here was just like floating in the water. Floating mountain means Fushan in Chinese. This is how Fushan County got its name.


Xiangfen County


Xiangling County and Fencheng County were merged to form Xiangfen County in September of 1954. The former Xiangling County was named after the graveyard of Xinggong of Jin Dynasty, because graveyard means Ling in Chinese. Fen city was named after Fen River by which it was located.


Hongdong County


It was Yangshi County of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn, and was changed to Yang County later. In the first year of Yining of Sui Dynasty (617), after Liyuan got the authority of Sui Dynasty, he changed Yang County to Hongdong County because he hated “Yang”, the family name of the emperor of Sui Dynasty. According to the records of the county, the county was named after Hongya Ancient Cave where the god Hongya lived in the prehistoric period. Cave in Chinese means Dong, so the county was named Hongdong.


Anze County


It was called Yishi(陭氏 in Chinese) County in Xihan Dynasty and was changed to Yishi(猗氏 in Chinese) County in Donghan Dynasty. In the first year of Jinayi period of Beiwei Dynasty (528), Yishi was changed to Jishi, and Anze County was established in the west (within Gu County now). Because it was located between Anji and Ze Spring, and therefore it was named after the initial letters of the two springs.


Gu County


Gu County was Yueyang in the ancient time. It was Anze County established in the first year of Jianyi period of Beiwei Dynasty (526). In Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Yueyang County which was changed to Anze County in 1914. In 1971, seven communes in the west of Anze County and 3 communes in the north of Fushan County were merged to form a county which was called Gu County because the name Yueyang couldn’t be used again.(There is a city called Yueyang in Hunan province.)


Fenxi County


Beiqi Dynasty set up Fenxi County and Linfen County here, and Fenxi County was abolished soon later. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), Linfen County was changed to Fenxi County because it was located in the west of Fen River.


Pu County


a hermit. In Shang Dynasty, it was called Jifang Hou Kingdom and it belonged to Puyi of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In Han Dynasty it was part of Puzi County. In Taiyuan 10 of Dongjin Dynasty (386), Dingyang County was set up here which was changed to Shicheng County in Taihe 21 of Beiwei Dynasty (497). In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), it reverted to Puzi County again. In the first year of Daye period of Sui Dynasty(605), it was changed to Pu County.


Xiangning County


Beiwei Dynasty set up Changning County and Pingchang County. In Tang Dynasty, Pingchang County was merged with Changning County. In the first year of Tongguang period of Post-Tang Dynasty of Five Dynasties (923), Changning County was changed to Xiangning County to avoid violating the taboo of the name of Zhuangzong King Li Cunxu’s grandfather Li Guochang.


Ji County


In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, it was Quyi of Jin Kingdom which was called Beiqu as well. Qin Dynasty set up Beiju County here. Then Beiwei Dynasty set Dingyang County here. Yangjian, the emperor of Sui Dynasty, hated the symphony of 定阳(Dingyang)and 定杨(Dingyang), because “杨”was his family name. Therefore Dingyang County was changed to Jichang County. Jin Dynasty changed Jichang County to Ji Zhou. In 1912, Ji Zhou was changed to Ji County.


Daning County


It was called Sushui County in the ancient time. The local governor changed Sushui County to Daning County to avoid fights with Guihua County (Yonghe County now) for the borders and expect peace and harmony for ever. Daning means peace and harmony in English.


Xi County


In Kaihuang 5 of Sui Dynasty (585), it was called Xi Zhou. According to The Records of Yuanhe County in Tang Dynasty, the ancient semantic book Er’ya.Shidi said, “The damp low area was called Xi.”, and it was just located in the damp low area, so it was called Xi. Xizhou was changed to Xi County in 1912.


Yonghe County


It was called Guihua County in the ancient time. To avoid fights with Sushui County (Daning County now) for the borders, the local governor changed Guihua County to Yonghe County which means peace and harmony forever.


Lvliang City


It was named after Lvliang Mountain which winds from the north to the south of the county. Guji Mountain in the city was called Lvliang Mountain in the ancient time. According to Records of Fenzhou Fu, Lvliang Mountain, called Guji Mountai as well, stands on the right of Mount Taihang, on the left of Mount Hua, and surrounded by Mount Chang, Mount Song and Mount Heng. The mountain is located in the center just like the spine of the world.  The meaning of Guji in the ancient time is similar to Lvliang, so the county was named after Lvliang Mountain which had jurisdiction over one district, two cities and ten counties.


Jiaocheng County


It belonged to Beitang in Xizhou Dynasty which was the military site of Hushi. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, the northwestern mountainous area was the fief of Hushi and the southeastern area was the farmland of Qishi. In Qing King 12 of Jin Dynasty (514), Pingling County was set up in the area nearby Daling Village under the control of Pingling. It belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. The western area was Daling County and the eastern area was Jinyang County. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), part of Jinyang and Wenshui was separated to form Jiaocheng County which was named after the joining area of Fen River and Kong River. In Tianshou 2 under the control of Wu Queen in Tang Dynasty (691), the county was removed to Quepo Village in the south of the mountain.


Wenshui County


It belonged to the farmland of Qishi of Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. It was called Daling Yi under the control of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. It was changed to Shouyang County (also West Shouyang) in Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448). In Kaihuang 10 of Sui Dynasty (590), it was changed to Wenshui County because Wengu River in the county had a lot of waves. When Wu Zetian became the emperor of Tang Dynasty, she changed her homeland Wenshui County to Wuxing County. In the first year of Shenlong period of Tang Dynasty (705), it reverted to Wenshui County.


Fenyang City


It belonged to Jin Kingdom, in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Guayan County. it became part of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms under the jurisdiction of Zishi. In Huangchu 2 of Wei Kingdom of the time of Three Kingdoms, Zishi County was under the control of Xihe County in the former site of Zishi. Xihe County was changed to Xihe Kingdom in Xijin Dynasty which had jurisdiction over Xicheng County. In Taihe 12 of Beiwei Dynasty (448), Fen Zhou was established which was under the control of Xicheng County. In the first year of Shangyuan period of Tang Dynasty (760), Xicheng County was changed to Xihe County which didn’t change through the end of Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties, Song, Jin, Yuan and the beginning of Ming Dynasty. In Wanli 23 of Ming Dynasty (1595), Fenyang County was established which was named after Fen River. The county was located in the west of Fen River and the west of a river means Yang in Chinese. Fenyang Army settled Xihe County in Song and Jin Dynasties. In August of 1996, it was changed to Fenyang City.


Xiaoyi City


It belonged to Wei Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms and belonged to Taiyuan County in Qin Dynasty under the control of Zishi County. In the first year of Wei Kingdom in the period of Three Kingdoms, it was removed to Zhongyang County under the control of Xihe County of Bing Zhou. In the first year of Yongjia period of Xijin Dynasty, it became part of Xihe (隰河) County of Xihe (西河) under the jurisdiction of Bing Zhou. Beiwei Dynasty established Yong’an County which became famous for the filial behavior of Zhengxing who cut his own flesh to make soup for his mother for he was too poor to afford the meat in the first year of Zhenguan period of Tang Dynasty (627). When hearing about Zhengxing’s filial behavior, Taizong Emperor of Tang Dynasty had Yong’an County changed to Xiaoyi County which means “filial” in English. In February of 1992, it was changed to Xiaoyi City.


Jiaokou County


Jiaokou County was established in April of 1971. It consisted of 9 communes including Jiaokou, Shikou, Chuankou and Kangcheng separated from Xi County, Huilong and Shuangchi separated from Lingshi County, and Damaijiao, Tansu and Wenquan separated from Xiaoyi County. It was named after Jiaokou Town where the county was located and “Jiaokou” means the transportation pass connecting the north and the south of Lvliang Mountain.


Shilou County


It was Zhi Kingdom in Yinshang Dynasty and belonged to Qu in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. Xihan Dynasty set up Tujun County here under the jurisdiction of Xihe Prefecture. Tujun County was abolished at the beginning of Donghan Dynasty and in Taiping Zhenjun 9 of Beiwei Dynasty (448) Yuxi County was established under the administration of Tujing Prefecturre which was changed to Tujing County in Taihe 21 (497). In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it was changed to Shilou County which was named after Tongtian Mountain (Shilou Mountain now) that looked like high building made of rocks. A high building made of rocks is called Shilou in Chinese, and this is just the origin of the name of Shilou.


Liulin County


In July of 1971, part of the commune was separated from the west of Lishi County and Zhongyang County to form Liulin County which was named after Liulin Town where the city of the county was located. Liulin refers to willow trees in English.


Zhongyang County


It was called Zhongyang Yi in the period of Warring Kingdoms under the control of Zhao Kingdom. Xihan Dynasty set up Zhongyang County which derived from the meaning of the sun at noon. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, it was incorporated into Lishi County. In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), it was divided and set up Ningxiang and Pingyi Counties which belonged to Lishi County which was merged with Pingyi County in Sui Dynasty under the jurisdiction of Lishi Prefecture. In Tang Dynasty, it belonged to Shi Zhou and belonged to Taiyuan Prefecture in Song Dynasty. It was changed to Ningxiang County in Taihe period of Jin Dynasty which was changed to Zhongyang County in 1914.


Lishi District


It is said that it was named after the aerolite which fell down the county in the ancient time. Some other people say that it was called Lishi because of Lishi River in the northeast of the county. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was Lishi Yi of Zhao Kingdom and Xihan Dynasty set up Lishi County here which was changed to Lishi City in May of 1996 and Lishi District in June of 2004.


Fangshan County


Xihan Dynasty set up Gaolang County here and Wenxuan Emperor of Beiqi Dynasty established Liangquan County here. In Daye 3 of Sui Dynasty (607), it transferred to Fangshan Town which was changed to Fangshan County because it was at the foot of Fangshan Mountain.


Lan County


It was named after Kelan Mountai in it. At the beginning of Beiwei Dynasty, it was part of Xiurong. At the end of Beiwei Dynasty, Gaohuan overthrew Xiurong and set up Lan Zhou here. Then Sui Dynasty established Lancheng County here under the control of Loufan Prefecture. In Tang Dynasty it was changed to Yifang County which belonged to Lan Zhou which was adopted in Five Dynasties, Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Lan Zhou was degraded to Lan County.


Lin County


It belonged to Ji Zhou in Xia Dynasty and belonged to Zhao Kingdom in Zhou Dynasty. Xihan Dynasty set Linshui County which was named after Qiushui River (Ling River in the ancient time). In the first year of Daxiang period of Beizhou Dynasty (579), Wutu County and Wutu Sub-County were set up. In the first year of Kaihuang period of Sui Dynasty (581) Wutu Prefecture was changed to Taihe Prefecture and Wutu County was changed to Taihe County. In Kaihuang 3 the prefecture was abolished. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty (620), Taihe County was changed to Linquan County. In the first year of Tianhui of Jin Dynasty (1123), Linquan was changed to Linshui. In Zhiyuan 3 under the control of the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty (1266), Lin Zhou was established here which was abolished and changed to Lin County in Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369).


Xing County


Wenfen County was set up in the first year of Tianbao period of Beiqi Dynasty (550) and was changed to Linquan County, Linjin County and Hehe County in the following time. In Xingding 2 of Jin Dynasty (1218), Yang King of Jin Kingdom said, “This place is located nearby the river, and therefore the position is very important and people lead a prosperous life here. Hence, Hehe County should be changed to Xing Zhou which means prosperity. ” In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Xing Zhou was changed to Xing County.


Shuozhou City


“Shuo” refers to a place which is in the northern bordering area of two countries. In Tianbao 6 of Beiqi Dynasty, Shuozhou was set up in 47 kilometers southwest of Mayi, and eight years later it was removed to Mayi which is the current Shuozhou city. Since then, the name and location of Shuozhou haven’t changed for thousands of years. In 1989, Shuozhou city was set up which has jurisdiction over two districts and four counties.


Shuocheng District


“Shuo” here means the same as “Shuo” in “Shuozhou”. Under the control of the emperor Yao, it belonged to Jizhou, and under the control of the emperor Shun, it was part of Bingzhou. In Xia Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Hunzhou (also Xunzhou) and in Shang Dynasty, it belonged to Tufang. In Xizhou Dynasty, it became part of Beirong, in Spring-and-Autumn period; it was occupied by Beidi and in the Warring Kingdoms period it was under the control of Zhao Kingdom. After the unification of the six kingdoms by the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, Mayi County was established here and then Beiqi Dynasty set up Shuozhou here, which existed until Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the early period of the Republic of China, Shuo County was set up here, and then changed to Shuocheng District after the establishment of Shuozhou city in 1989.


Pinglu District


Ming Dynasty set up Pinglu Wei here and in Qing Dynasty Pinglu County was established here. In 1958, Pinglu and Shuo County were combined one called Shuo County. In 1961, Pinglu County reverted again and in 1989 Pinglu County was abolished and replaced by Pinglu District.


Shanyin County


It belonged to Dai Kingdom in the Spring-and-Autumn period and belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin Dynasty, it was part of Yanmen County while in Sui Dynasty it was under the control of Shenwu belonging to Mayi County. In Tang Dynasty, it was part of Mayi County under the control of Shuozhou. Then Liao Dynasty set up Heyin County which was changed to Shanyin County in Dading 7 of Jin Dynasty (1167) because it was located in the shadowy slope of Cuiwei Mountain, a branch of Mount Heng.


Huairen County


It belonged to Dai Kingdom in the Spring-and-Autumn period and belonged to Zhao Kingdome in the time of Warring Kingdoms. In Qin and Han Dynasties it was part of Yanmen County, while in Sui Dynasty it was under the control of Yunnei County. In Tang Dynasty it belonged to Yunzhong County. Then Liao Dynasty set up Huairen County here, because Wu King of Tang Dynasty Li Keyong allied with the first emperor of Liao Dynasty Yelv Abaoji in the east city of Yunzhou and the name “Huairen” which means in memory of the great people.


Ying County


It was part of Mayi County and in late Tang Dynasty Yizhou was set up here. In the first year of the Republic of China, it was changed to Ying County because it was located between the Longshou Mountai and Yanmen Mountain and “Ying” in Chinese just expresses its geographical location of this kind.


Youyu County


In Hongwu 25 of Ming Dynasty (1392), Dingbian Wei was established. In Yongle 7(1409), Datong Youwei was set up and in Zhongtong period Yulin Wei was merged with Youwei as Youyulin Wei. In early Qing Dynasty, Youyu Wei was set up here which was changed to Youyu County in Yongzheng 3 (1725).


Taiyuan


In ancient classics such as Book of Songs, Book of Documents and Chronicle of Zuo,it was recorded than Bogu Kingdom quelled Youyun minority in Dayuan and the pioneer of handling water Taiyi cleared Fen River and Tao River to block the flood to protect Dayuan.Dayuan mentioned in those classics meant taiyuan and Taiyuan refers to big plain (“big” means the same as “tai” in ancient Chinese.). As the name of a place, Taiyuan appeared after the time of spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, Taiyuan belonged to Zhao Kingdom which took Jinyang as the capital. In Zhuangxiang King 2 of Qin Dynasty (248), the general Mengao overthrew Zhao Kingdom and settled in Taiyuan. Then in the following year Taiyuan County was established here. the capital was set in Jinyang and this was the beginning of the establishment of a county in Taiyuan. In Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Taiyuan referred to Taiyuan Fu in a broad sense and referred to Taiyuan City which developed from Tangming Town. In 16 of the Republic of China (1927), Taiyuan City was established which had jurisdiction over one city and three counties.


Xiaodian District


The name derived from Xiaodian Village which was formed at the beginning of Beisong Dynasty. After Song Dynasty destroyed Jinyang city, this place became the key place from the newly-built Pingjin County to the ancient site of Jinyang in the west. In the early time, there were only some small restaurants here, and then more and more business people gathered here to form a village gradually. Because the stores here were small but large in amount, the village was called Xiaodian which meant small stores. According to Records of Taiyuan County written in Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Xiaodian Village, which was firstly called Yong’an Village, was a transportation hub connecting roads of all directions. In 1954, the fourth district of Taiyuan was changed to Xiaodian District and the District Government settled in Xiaodian Village. In 1970, the suburb of Taiyuan City was divided into two parts---the south suburb and the north suburb. The government of the south suburb settled in Xiaodian Township. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division of the district and changed the south suburb to Xiaodian District.


Yingze District


It was named after Yingze Gate. In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, Taiyuan City was expanded and Yingze Gate (also called Big South Gate) was one of the eight gates of the city. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Yingze Street, Yingze Highway and Yingze Hotel were built here. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former south city district to Yingze district.


Xinghualing District


It was named after Xinghualing, the garden of the noble mansion of Lord Jin in Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty. The garden was called Xinghualing because many apricot trees (Xingshu in Chinese) were planted in the garden and its geographical position was a little high. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Xinghualing Street was built where the administration office of Xinghualing was situated. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and named the former north city district Xinghualing District.


Jiancaoping District


Once upon a time, there was a kind of flower with sharp pickles called Jiancaoping. After the liberation of Taiyuan, Jiancaoping Street, Jiancaoping Overpass and Jiancaoping Administration Office were established here. Jiancaoping went beyond the original meaning and referred to the area circling Taiyuan Iron Group. In 1997, Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former north suburb to Jiancaoping District.


Wanbolin District


It was named after the cypresses here. Before the liberation of Taiyuan, the local people planted a lot of cypresses here which were called cypress forest. In 1954, the fifth district of Taiyuan City was changed to Wanbolin District and in 1997 Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and changed the former Hexi District to Wanbolin District.


Jinyuan District


It was named Jinyuan because it was located in the source of Jinshui River and Yuan in Chinese means the source of a river. In history, Xiefu moved to the place nearby Jinshui River and changed Tang Kingdom to Jin Kingdom which meant the origin of Tang and Jin. In 1947, Jinyuan County was established here and in 1954 the sixth district of Taiyuan City was changed to Jinyuan District. In 1997 Taiyuan City adjusted the administrative division and established Jinyuan District,


Gujiao City


It was called Jiaocheng in the past. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty, Jiaocheng County was established here and in Tianshou 2 under the control of Wu Queen in Tang Dynasty (691) the county was removed to Quebo Village in the south of the mountain. Then the place was called Gujiao City, Gujiao for short. “故” and “古” have the same meaning in ancient Chinese, so it gradually evolved into “古交”(Gujiao). In Qing Dynasty, it was called Gujiao Town. In 1958, Gujiao Industrial and Mining District was established which was changed to Gujiao City in 1988.


Qingxu County


The name of the county is combined by the initial letters of Qingyuan County and Xugou County. Qingyuan County was named after Qingyuan River in Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596). In 5 of the Republic of China (1916), Qingyuan County was abolished and merged with Xugou County. Then the former county was changed to Qingyuan Town and it reverted to Qingyuan County the next year. Xugou County was named after Xugou formed by Jinshui River and Xiangyu River joining together which was also taken as the border of the city. In Dading 29 of Jin Dynasty (1189), Xugou County was established and in 1952 Qingyuan County and Xugou County were merged to form Qingxu County which adopted the initial letters of their names. It belonged to Yuci Special District at that time. In 1958, Qingxu County was put under the direct administration of Taiyuan City.


Yangqu County


In Supplement to Twenty-five Histories—Supplement to Gegraphical Records of Han History, Yingshao said, “ the river curved each thousand miles and the county is in the north of the river(the north of the river is called Yang in ancient Chinese), so it is called Yangqu.” Han Dynasty set up Yangqu County in the current Xiang County. In Jian’an 20 of Han Dynasty (215), Caocao moved the government of Yangqu County to the current Yangqu Town of Jiancaoping District of Taiyuan City. In Kaihuang 6 of Sui Dynasty (586), Wen Emperor of Sui Dynasty Yangjian changed it to Yangzhi County because he hated the word “Qu”. Later it reverted to Yangqu County again. In Taiping Xingguo 7 of Song Dynasty (982), the government of Yangqu County was removed to the outside of the west city of Taiyuan City. In Tianhui period of Jin Dynasty, it transferred to Taiyuan Fu and Yangqu County became the leading county of Shanxi province, which was called “Top County of Three Jin”


Loufan County


It was named after the ancient Loufan Tribe. There used to be Loufan Kingdom, Loufan Prefect, Loufan Jian and Loufan County here in history, but the capital was not in the current range of the county. Loufan as the special name of the current Loufan County started from Tang Dynasty. In the first year of Longji period of Tang Dynasty (889), Loufan County was set up. In the following time, it was abolished several times but established again. In Ming Dynasty, the county was abolished and replaced by a town which was under the jurisdiction of Jingle County. In 1971, Loufan County was reestablished which belonged to Lvliang area and in 1972 it was put under the direct administration of Taiyuan City.


Xinzhou City


In the ancient time, it was called Xiurong and belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it became part of Zhao Kingdom. In Qin Dynasty, divided by Gouzhu Mountain, the north of it belonged to Yanmen County and the south of it belonged to Taiyuan County. At the end of Donghan Dynasty, Xinxing County was established which was changed to Jinchang County in Xijin County. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), the county was abolished and replaced by Xin Zhou which was named after Xinkou here. According to another legend, during the fight with Xiongnu in the north, Gaozu emperor of Han Dynasty got out of the enemies in Xinkou when he withdrew from Pingcheng (Datong now). The soldiers of Han Dynasty were very happy to be out of the enemies. In Chinese “欣” which means happy has the same pronunciation as “忻” , so Xinkou was named Xin Zhou then. In 1949 it belonged to Xin County specially and in 1983 it was changed to Xinzhou District which was changed to Xinzhou City in 2001 which had jurisdiction over one district, one city and twelve counties.


Xinfu District


“Xin” means the same as “Xinzhou”. At the beginning of the Republic of China, it was changed to Xin County and in 1983 it was changed to Xinzhou City which was changed to Xinfu District in 2001.


Dingxiang County


According to the system of rewarding the emperors or lords after they died mentioned in Records of Grand History---Justice, exploiting the farmland and expanding the territory of the kingdom were both great accomplishments which deserved rewards.. Xihan Dynasty set up Dingxiang County in the north of Helinge’er of Inner Mongolia. Dingxiang indicated the peace and harmony of Helinge’er. Then at the end of HaN Dynasty, it transferred to Jinzhi from Inner Mongolia. In Wude 4 of Tang Dynasty (621), Dingxiang County was established in Jinzhi.


Wutai County


In Taihe 10 of Beiwei Dynasty (486), Lvyi County was set up and in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty (606) it was changed to Wutai County because of Mount Wutai in it. In Zhenyou 4 of Jin Dynasty (1216), it was upgraded to Taizhou. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Wutai County again.


Yuanping City


The county was just like a plain which meant Pingyuan in Chinese, so it was named Yuanping. In Yuanding 3 of Xihan Dynasty (114 BC), Yuanping County was firstly set up and changed to Guo County in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty (606). In the first year of Shenlong period of Tang Dynasty (705), it was changed to Tanglin County which was called Yuanping County again in 1958. In 1933, the county was abolished and a city was set up here.


Dai County


“Dai” in the name of Dai County derived from the name of Dai Kingdom or Dai County of Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms which was set up by Wuling King of Zhao Kingdom. Dai County of Zhao Kingdom was one of 36 counties in Qin Dynasty which was located the current Dai County. In Gaozu 6 of Han Dynasty (201 BC), Liubang merged 53 counties such as Yunzhong, Yanmen and Dai County to establish Dai Kingdom. After Han Dynasty, the name of Dai Kingdom was used often but the range of the county changed frequently. The current Dai County is an important proof of the name of an ancient place.


Fanzhi County


It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Hos( a minority group) Yi. In the period of Warring Kingdoms, Fanzhi(繁畤in Chinese ) County was firstly set up. The name Fanzhi derived from the mountains around the county. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), Zhou was abolished and replaced by County. Fanzhi (繁畤 in Chinese) was changed to Fanzhi(繁峙in Chinese ).


Jingle County


At the beginning of Xihan Dynasty, Fenyang County was set up which was changed to Jingle County in Daye 4 of Sui Dynasty which meant peace and happiness. In Wude 6 of Tang Dynasty (623), Fenyang and Liudu were merged with Jingle County and a city was firstly built here. In Xianping 5 of Song Dynasty (1002), Xianzhou transferred to Jingle from Loufan and Jingle County was abolished. A city was built here for the first time. In Xining 3(1070), Xianzhou was established here which had jurisdiction over Jingle County. Then Jin Dynasty set up Jingle County here which was changed to Guan Zhou in Tiande 3(1151). Yuan Dynasty inherited the system set by Jin Dynasty and called it Guan Zhoui. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Jingle County again.


Ningwu County


In Dade 5 of Yuan Dynasty (1301), Ningwu Tun was established which was named Xianning Yanwu before. In Chenghua 4 of Ming Dynasty(1468), Ningwu Pass was set up here and in Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty(1725), Ningwu County was established which derived its name from the name of the pass.


Shenchi County


Shenchi in the name of the county refers to a holy pool in English. The holy pool is about 30 miles down from the north of Huanghua Wolds. It seemed to come from nowhere and never changed according to the weather changes. As to the holy pool, there is another legend. It is said in the ancient time a woman gave birth to two dragons without getting married. The dragons flew away and the woman disappeared as well. Her water increased gradually to form a pool which was called holy pool by the following people.


Wuzhai County


In Jiajing 16 of Ming Dynasty (1537), five castles which consisted of the east castle, the west castle, the south castle, the north castle and the middle castle, were built which were the origin of the name of the county. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Wuzhai County was set up here.


Xiurong County


In Beiwei Dynasty it belonged to Xiurong County and named Lan Zhou after Kelan Mountain in the county. In Daye 3 of Sui Dynasty (607), Kelan Township was set up which was changed to Kelan Zhou in Yongchun 2 of Tang Dynasty (683). In Chang’an 3 (703), Langu County was set up here under the control of Lan Zhou. In the period of Five Dynasties, it was still called Langu County by inheriting the former system. Song Dynasty established Kelan Army in Langu County. Jin Dynasty abolished the army and upgraded Langu County to Kelan County which was abolished in Yuan Dynasty. In Hongwu 8 of Ming Dynasty (1375), Kelan County was set up here and then replaced by Kelan Zhou. At the beginning of the Republic of China, it reverted to Kelan County again.


Hequ County


It was named Hequ County because it was located in the curve of the Yellow River and “Hequ” means the curve of the Yellow River in English. It belonged to Zhao Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms, and to Xuanwu of Xihe County in Han Dynasty. In Xijin Dynasty, it was under the control of Qianghu. In Tang Dynasty, it was part of Yifang County. Beihan Dynasty of Five Dynasties set up Xiongyong Township which belonged to Lan Zhou. In Xingguo 7 of Song Dynasty (982), Huoshan Army was established here. in Zhiping 4(1067), Huoshan County was set up here under the jurisdiction of Dai Zhou. In the first year of Zhenyuan period of Jin Dynasty (1153), Hequ County was established here which was upgraded to Huoshan Zhou in Dading 22(1182) and changed to Aozhou later. In Hongwu 2 of Ming Dynasty (1369), it reverted to Hequ County which belonged to Taiyuan Fu and in Yongzheng 2 of Qing Dynasty it was changed to Baode Zhou.


Baode County


In Chunhua 4 of Song Dynasty, Dingqiang Army was set up here and in the first year of Jingde period it was changed to Baode Army which meant that the residents were protected by the city and the city was protected by the morality. In Dading 11 of Jin Dynasty (1171), Baode County was set up here.


Pianguan Countu


In the first year of Tianhui period of Beihan Dynasty of Five Dynasties, a village was firstly established in Hangguang Ling which was high in the east and low in the west just like the unbalanced shape of the head of human beings. “Unbalanced shape of the head” means “Piantou” in Chinese, and therefore it was called Piantou Zhai. In Dade 3 of Yuan Dynasty (1299), village was upgraded to Guan which means pass in English. In Yongzheng 3 of Qing Dynasty (1725), Pianguan County was set up here.


Yangquan city


The name of Yangquan city is closely associated with the flowing spring and the natural environment here. Yangquan was the name of a village in the early time, and then used as the name of the railway station or the town. In May of 1947, it became the name of the city. According to the Guangxu version of Records of Pingding State in Qing Dynasty, Yangquan is 15 miles away in the west of the state, and there are five sources of the spring which spring out from the land. It was originally called Yangquan and then Yangyun. The Yangquan Village was set up not later than Beisong Dynasty and with the increase of the villagers, the village became two villages—Big Yangquan Village and Small Yangquan Village. In Guangxu 2 of Qing Dynasty (1906), Zhengtai railway ran through Small Yangquan Village and had a station called Yangquan Station built here. Since then, Yangquan town, an important town of commerce and military which circled the station, has gradually formed. In May of 1947, Yangquan city was officially set up and became the first city built and led by the CCP (the Chinese Communist Party), which has jurisdiction over three districts and two counties.


The city district of Yangquan city


In 1952, the first district was set up, and in 1956 it was changed to Zhanshang district due to the name of the railway station of Yangquan city. In 1957, it was merged with Yinying district to form the suburb and in 1958 it was changed to Zhanshang Commune. In 1963, it reverted to Zhanshang district again. In 1969, it was named the city district.


Yangquan Industrial and Mining DistrictI


in 1980, it became the industrial and mining district of Yangquan city, an administrative unit which used to be a combined unit of Yangquan Bureau of Mining and the government.


The suburb of Yangquan city


In 1952, the second district was set up here and in 1956 it was changed to Yinying district. By 1957, it was combined with Zhanshang district and formed the suburb. In 1958, Pingding County combined with the suburb was called the suburb of Yangquan city. In 1961, the suburb of Yangquan city was abolished and a people’s commune was set up under the direct administration of the municipal government. In 1963, it reverted to Yinying district again and in 1969, it was changed to the suburb of Yangquan city.


Pingding County


Shang’ai County was set up in Xihan Dynasty and in Beiwei Dynasty it was changed to Shi’ai County. In the first year of Tianbao period in Tang Dynasty (724), it was changed to Guangyang County. In Taiping Xinguo 2 of Song Dynasty (977), Pingding army was set up here, and in Taiping Xinguo 4, it was changed to Pingding County. According to the Guangxu version of Records of Pingding State in Qing Dynasty, the first emperor of Song Dynasty conquered the capital city of Hedong, and set up Pingding army here under the control of Zhenzhou. It was called Pingding which means the quelling of all rebels and the stability of the kingdom. (seen from the Book of Songs. Daya. Jianghan)


Yu County


In the Spring-and-Autumn time, the Baidi people established Qiudi Kingdom and was overthrown by Zhibo(Xunyao) of Jin Kingdom in early Warring Kingdoms. Then Yuanqiu city was established here. in Kaihuang 16(596), Yuanqiu County was set up here and in Daye 2 of Sui Dynasty it was changed to Yu County because the shape of the county is just like a cuspidor which is high around and low in the middle. Shenzhong, Tixue (a official title) of Shanxi in Ming Dynasty described the geographical condition of Yu city in his poem To Yu City which said, “a city of three miles surrounded by mountains”.


Yuncheng City


The county was named Yuncheng because it was a city to transport salt and transport in Chinese means Yun. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. After Jin Dynasty was divided by Han, Zhao and Wei Kingdoms, it was under the control of Wei Kingdom. The first emperor of Qin Dynasty set up 36 counties and Yuncheng belonged to Hedong Prefecture which was called Hedong in the following time. In 1949, Yuncheng Special Administration was established and in 1954 Yuncheng and Linfen were merged to form Jinnan special area. In 1970 Jinnan was abolished and Yuncheng district was established again. It was changed to a prefectural-level city which had jurisdiction over one district, two cities and ten counties.


Yanhu District


In 1950, Yuncheng was under the jurisdiction of Yuncheng Special District and belonged to Jinnan Special District after abolishing Yuncheng Special District. In July of 1954, Jie County and Yu Township were merged to form Jieyu County and in July of 1955 Yuncheng Town was incorporated into Anyi County. In November of 1958, Anyi, Jieyu, Yongji and Linyi were merged to form Yuncheng County. From January of 1960 to July of 1961, Linyi ang Yongji were excluded from Yuncheng County. Yongji and Anyi were still called Yuncheng County which was changed to Yuncheng City in 1983. It was changed to Yanhu District in 2000, because of the salt lake (Yanhu) in it.


Yongji City


It was called Puban in the ancient time. Qin Dynasty set up Puban County. In Yongzheng 6 of Qing Dynasty (1728), Pu Zhou was upgraded to Pu Fu with an affiliated county Yongji which was named after the conservancy project Yongji Channel built in Ming Dynasty.


Hejin City


In the period of Warring Kingdoms, it was Pishi Yi of Wei Kingdom. Qin Dynasty set up Pishi County here for the first time. In the first year of Tianfeng period under the control of Wangmang(14), it was changed to Yanping County. Then it reverted to Pishi County again in Donghan Dynaasty. In Taiping Zhenjun 7 of Beiwei Dynasty (446) it was named Longmen County which was changed to Hejin County in Xuanhe 2 of Song Dynasty (1120) because Yumen Crossing of the Yellow River is in the county and Hejin refers to the crossing of the river in English. In 1944, the county was abolished and replaced by a city here.


Linyi County


It was established in 1954 and the name Linyi derived from the initial letteres of Linshi County and Yishi County. There are two possible explainations to the origin of the name Linjin. One is that Qin Kingdom set a castle in the west bank of the Yellow River which was near Jin Kingdom and “near” refers to “Lin” in Chinese, so it was named Linjin. The other one is that it was called Jinyang in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and Jincheng in Tang Dynasty, so it was called Linjin. The origin of the name of Yishi can date back to the ancient Guyi Kingdom of Xia Dynasty. Just as History of Routes said, “there was a Yi Kingdom in Xia Dynasty.” Then Han Dynasty established Yishi County.


Wangrong County


Wanquan County and Ronghe County were merged to form Wanrong County which got its name from the initial letters of Wanquan and Ronghe. Wanquan was noted for the springs here. In Wude 3 of Tang Dynasty (620), Jishan, Anyi, Yishi, Fenyin and Longmen were combined to form Wanquan County. Ronghe belonged to Gengdi in Xizhou Dynasty. In Kaiyuan 10 (722), when the memorial temple of Houtu was repaired, an ancient tripod was discovered and therefore the county was changed to Baoding County for “tripod” in Chinese means “Ding”.  In Dazhong Xiangfu 4 of Song Dynasty (1011), Rong River flooded which was viewed as fortune by people, so it was changed to Ronghe County. In 1954, Wanquan County and Ronghe County were integrated.


Jishan County


It was called Ji in Shang and Zhou Dynasties. It belonged to Jin Kingdom and called Qingyuan in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In the period of Warring Kingdoms it was under the control of Zhao Kingdom and belonged to Hedong County in Qin Dynasty. In Xihan Dynasty, divided by Fen River, the south was Zuoyi County (Wenxi now) and the north was Changxiu County (Xinjiang now). In Donghan Dynasty, the north of Fen River was merged with Pishi (Hejin now) while the south of Fen River was merged with Wenxi County. Jishan Pavilion was built then. The county belonged to Longmen County at the beginning of Beiwei Dynasty. In Taihe 11 (487), Gaoliang County was set up here in control of the sub-county Gaoliang. In Kaihuang 2 of Sui Dynasty (582), Jiang Zhou transferred to Zhengping and a county was established in the north of Fen River. The county was named after Jishan Mountain in it, and the name has never changed since then.


Xinjiang County


It was called Taiping County in the first year of Dengguo period of Beiwei Dynasty (386) and in Kaihuang 3 of Sui Dynasty (538) Zhengping County was set up here which was changed to Jiang Zhou in Daye 2 (606) which had jurisdiction over 8 counties including Zhengping, Yicheng, Quwo, Jishan, Longmen, Yuanqu, Taiping and Jiang County. in 1912, Jiang Zhou was abolished and Xinjiang County was set up here. Xinjiang in the name of the county means innovation. It was called Xinjiang County to be differentiated from Jiang County which was the beginning of the name of Xinjiang County.


Jiang County


It was named after Jiang Mountain in it. Chexiang city was built in the time of Spring-and-Autumn. In Hui King 8 of Zhou Dynasty (669 BC), Xiangong of Jin Kingdom sent all the lords to gather in the capital and killed all the sons of the lords. Then he named Chexiang city Jiang County for the first time and made it the capital of Jin. Jiang belonged to Wei Kingdom after Han, Wei and Jin Kingdoms divided Jin Dynasty. In Qin Dynasty, it belonged to Hedong County and in Xihan Dynasty the place of Jiang expanded to include Quwo County and Yicheng County. In Taihe 8 of Beiwei Dynasty (494), Nanjiang County was established which was divided by Jiang Mountain between Jiang County and it. Nanjiang County was changed to Jiang County in Datong 5 of Xiwei Dynasty (539).


Yuanqu County


Yuan means wall in English and Qu refers to curve in English. The county was surrounded by mountains like walls and located in the bank of the curving Yellow River, and so it was called Yuanqu County. In Shang and Zhou Dynasties, it was Genfang under the control of Hou Kingdom. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn and to Wei Kingdom in the period of Warring Kingdoms. It belonged to Hedong County in Qin Dynasty. Qin Dynasty set up Yuan County which was changed to Baishui County and Haocheng County in the South and North Dynasties. It reverted to Yuan County in Sui Dynassty which was changed to Yuanqu County in Song Dynasty. Since then Yuanqu has never changed.


Weixi County


It was called Zuoyi County in Qin Dynasty. in Yuanding 6 of Xihan Dynasty (111 BC), when Wu Emperor Liuche passed Tongxiang of Zuoyi on the way to Houshi of Henan, he got the good news of conquering Nanyue (Nanyue Kingdom, the area of the current Guangdong and Guangxi), so he changed Tongxiang to Wenxi County which meant getting the good news.


Xia Couinty


It belonged to Anyi in the ancient time which was named after the ancient capital of Yu Emperor in Xia Dynasty. 4500 years ago, Yu, who became emperor for his great accomplishments in handling the floods, Emperor established Xia Dynasty and the capital here. It belonged to Yi Zhou in Xia Dynasty under the control of Hou Kingdom. In Zhou Dynasty, it was part of Jin Kingdom and in Taihe 18 of Beiwei Dynasty (494) Xia County was set up here.


Pinglu County


It was called Yu in Xia Dynasty. After Wu Emperor of Zhou Dynasty granted this place to Zhongyong, the name of the country was still Yu. It belonged to Jin Kingdom in the time of Spring-and-Autumn under the control of Taiyang Yi. At the beginning of Han Dynasty, Dayang County was set up which was called Taiyang County as well. In Tianhe 2 of Beizhou Dynasty (567), it was changed to Hebei County. In the first year of Tianbao period of Tang Dynasty (724), the governor of Shan County Li Qiwu got an ancient sword which was inscribed with Pinglu indicating fortune. Therefore it was called Pinglu County.


Ruicheng County


At the beginning of Xizhou Dynasty, Wu Emperor granted this place to the Ji family which was called Wei Kingdom. Xiangong of Jin overthrew Wei Kingdom and granted this place to Dafu Rui Biwan, so the place was called Ruicheng or Weicheng. Han Dynasty set up Hebei County and Xiwei Dynasty set up Anrong County in the east of the current county here. In Ming King 2 of Beizhou Dynasty (558), Ruicheng County was established for the first time. In Wude 2 of Tang Dynasty (619), Rui Zhou was set up here which had jurisdiction over Ruicheng and Yongle County. In Ming and Qing Dynasties, it was still called Ruicheng County here.


The origin of the names of the counties of Changzhi


Changzhi city: it was called Shangdang in ancient China. It is located on Mount Taihang and the highest area of the city is just like in the heaven. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, Shangdang County was firstly set up and in the South and North Dynasties, it was changed to Luzhou. In Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty(1529), it was changed to Lu’an Fu,and had set up Changzhi County which means long-lasting security and peace. Two districts and ten counties are under the jurisdiction of the county.


The urban area of Changzhi city: Changzhi city was set up in 1946 and changed to industrial and mining area. Then in 1952, it reverted to Changzhi city again, and in 1975 it was made a provincial-level city with a city district and the suburb. In 1976, the city district of Changzhi became a county-level district officially.


The suburb of Changzhi city: Changzhi city was set up in 1946 and changed to the district of coalmine industry. Then in 1952, it reverted to Changzhi city again, and in 1975 it was made a provincial-level city with the urban area and the suburb. In 1976, the suburb of Changzhi became a prefectural-level district officially.


Changzhi County: in the Spring-and-Autumn period, it was under the jurisdiction of Lushi Branch of Chidi Tribe of Jin Dynasty. Then in the time of Warring Kingdom, it was the capital of Han Kingdom, under the control of Shangdang County. In Han Dynasty, it was part of Huguan. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596), Huguan was divided and Shangdang Conunty was set up. In Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty (1529), Luzhou was upgraded to Lu’an Fu with an affiliated county Changzhi, which means long-lasting security and peace.


Lucheng city: in the period of Huang Emperor, Canlu, the descendent of Yan Emperor, established Lu Kingdom in the current Lucheng city. After Wuding of Shang Dynasty, wars between Shang Dynasty and the kingdoms in the northwest such as Guifang Kingdom and Tufang Kingdom took place frequently. Those kingdoms scattered in the south of Shanxi Province, and Xiluo Guirong which belonged to Guifang Kingdom was living in the current Lucheng city. According to the historians who study Qin Dynasty, “Luo” means “Lu”, which is the origin of the meaning of “Lu” in Lu Kingdomg. In Shang Dynasty, it was the fief of Ziwei, called Ziwei Kingdom. In Xizhou Dynasty, it was called Lu. In the Spring-and-Autumn period, it was Luzi Ying’er Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Lu County was set up and in Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty (596) Lucheng County was established. In Tianyou 2 of Tang Dynasty (905), it was changed to Luzi County and in the period of Five Dynasties, it reverted to Lucheng County again. In 1994, the county was replaced by a city here.


Tunliu County: it started in Zhou Dynasty. The east of Tunliu was called Liuxu while the west of it belonged to Xuwushi. In the time of Spring-and-Autumn, Liuxu and Xuwu were merged with Jin Kingdom. Liuxu was called Chunliu as well. In the time of Warring Kingdoms, Chunliu was changed to Tunliu and Xuwu was changed to Yuwu, which both belonged to Han Kingdom. In Han Dynasty, Tunliu County and Yuwu County were established and in Donghan Dynasty, Yuwu was merged with Tunliu.


Zhangzi County: it is said Zhangzi County was the fief of Danzhu, the first son of Yao Emperor in prehistory. In Qin and Han Dynasty, Zhangzi County was set up. In Kaihuang 9 of Sui Dynasty (589), it was changed to Jishi County and in Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty (598), it reverted to Zhangzi County again.


Huguang County: the county was located between Bai Gu Mountain (the current Laoding Mountain) in the north and Shuanglong Mountain in the south. The shape of the mountains is just like a kettle (Hu in Chinese) and the pass is just at the opening of the kettle. Therefore the county was called Huguan (the opening of the kettle in Chinese). In the first year of Xihan Dynasty (206 BC), Huguan County was set up.


Pingshun County: it was called Qingyangli and under the control of Lucheng County in Ming Dynasty. In Jiajing 3 of Ming Dynasty (1524), the farmer’s rebellion led by Chenqing broke out. After the rebellion, to strengthen the control over the farmers of Qingyangli, in Jiajing 8 of Ming Dynasty (1529), the government set up Pingshun County in Qingyangli where Chenqing led the rebellion. Pingshun means quelling the rebels and satisfying the people’s expectation.


Licheng County: in Spring-and-Autumn time, it was Lihou Kingdom, and in Han Dynasy, Three Kingdoms and the two Jin Dynasties, it was under the jurisdiction of Lu County. In Taipingzhenjun 11 of Beiwei Dynasty (450), Lucheng County was abolished and Yiling County was set up. In Kaihuang 18 of Sui Dynasty, it was changed to Licheng County.


Xiangyuan County: it was called Xiangyuan County because Zhao Xiangzi set up a city here in the time of Warring Kingdom. In Xihan Dynasty, Xiangyuan County was set up and in Beiwei Dynasty, it was called Xiangyuan County. In Jiande 6 of Beizhou Dynasty (577), Xingyuan County was changed to Han State, and therefore it was called Ancient Han as well.


Wuxiang County: it was called Wuxiang County because there were Wu Mountain and Wuxiang River in the county. In Xihan Dynasty, Nieshi County was set up and in Donghan Dynasty it was changed to Nie County. In Qinshi period of Wu King of Xijin Dynasty, Nie County consisted of three sub-counties: Wuxiang, Laoyang and Nie. This is the origin of the name of Wuxiang County.


Qincounty: Chidi tribe lived here in the period of Spring-and-Autumn, and it was called a county from Han Dynasty. In Kaihuang 16 of Sui Dynasty(596), it got the name “Qinzhou”because of Qin River in it. In Hongwu period of Ming Dynasty, Wuxiang and Qinyuan were under the control of Qinzhou, and Qing Dynasty still called it Qinzhou like Ming Dynasty. In 1911, it was changed to Qin County


Qinyuan County: in Xihan Dynasty, a county Guyuan was firstly set up here, which belonged to Shangdang County. In Xinmang period, it was changed to Gujin County and in Donghan Dynasty it reverted to Guyuan County again. In the first year of Jianyi period of Xiaozhuang King in Beiwei Dynasty (528), it was called Qinyuan County because Qin River starts from the Channel of Erlang God in the northwest of the county.